William Bigger

William Bigger

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William Biggar was born in Mexborough on 16th October, 1874. He played local football for Birtley before joining Sheffield United in 1899. A goalkeeper, he was kept out of the first team by the English international, William Foulke. The team also included some other great players such as Ernest Needham, Walter Bennett, William Barnes and Jack Hedley.

William Foulke was in great form in the 1899-1900 season and once again Sheffield United had the best defensive record in the league. However, in his only game that season, Bigger let in four goals against Nottingham Forest. The club finished in second place to Aston Villa.

The following season Bigger returned to the first-team after William Foulke was injured. This time he did much better and in his first game he took part in his club's 5-0 victory over Manchester City.

In 1901, after playing only 14 games for Sheffield United, Bigger moved to West Ham United. The club also signed Fred Griffiths that year. It was Biggar who started off the season in goal. However, on 27th September, West Ham lost 5-1 to Wellingborough Town. As a result, Griffiths replaced Biggar, as the club's first-team keeper.

Biggar only played 8 league games in 1902-03. He joined Fulham in 1903. He also played for Watford and Rochdale before retiring on the outbreak of the First World War.

William Bigger died in 1935.

Big History: Engaging the New Narrative of Science

Science is progressive, and it tends toward consensus of necessity. Science discovers, illuminates, and crafts facts, and we rely on these complex facts in practical ways. Unlike religion, science is pretty much the same collection of complex facts in all cultures around the world. These facts are uncovered with considerable effort by peer-reviewed scientific guilds around a multitude of specializations and societies. It is a remarkable global division of labor.

The cumulative result of this detailed and systematic study of nature is something quite remarkable and unexpected -- a grand narrative that unifies knowledge and the many languages of science. All of the facts discovered by scientists working in narrow specializations turn out to be hierarchically organized by chronology, scale and thresholds of emergent complexity. The jumble of disconnected facts you learned in high school and university turns out to be an amazing story -- a history of nature and our species. The physicist Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker called this history of nature "the most important discovery of modern science." We call it Big History.

Big History is the narrative account of the 13.7 billion-year history of our universe, the 4.5 billion-year evolution of our planet, the 7 million-year rise of our species, and the 10,000-year accelerating drama of human civilization. Every time we log on to the Internet or pump 200 million-year-old fossil fuels into our cars, we affirm this story in deed, if not in thought or understanding.

In brief, our omnicentric universe began as something like infinite heat, infinite density, and total symmetry. This universe expanded and evolved into more differentiated and complex structures -- forces, quarks, hydrogen, helium, galaxies, stars, heavier elements and planetary systems. Some 3.5 billion years ago, in a small second- or third-generation solar system, the intricate processes called "life" began on at least one small planet. Animate matter-energy on Earth presented itself as a marvelous new intensification of the creative dynamic at work in the universe. Then some 2 million years ago, as if yesterday in the enormous timescales of the universe, proto-humans emerged on the savanna of Africa with enormously heightened capacities for conscious self-reflection, language, and tool making. Ten thousand years ago, agriculture began, and with it growing populations of humans living in ever larger and more complex societies. This unfolding leads us all the way to today, 7 billion of us collectively transforming the planet and ourselves.

The wonder of it all is that each of us is a collection of transient atoms, recycled stardust become conscious beings, engaged in a global conversation, brought to us by ephemeral electrons cascading through the Internet and bouncing off of satellites.

Religionists and others who deny certain facts of this Big History, who don't understand or accept the scope and some of the important details of this new unity of knowledge, do great damage to our culture and to their own credibility.

Big History, however, does not necessarily authorize a disenchanted universe, as argued by many of the popular oracles of science today. Like any great story, Big History is open to multiple interpretations, so long as one is faithful to the text -- in this case, the "Book of Nature" as progressively discovered by science. The Stoic and existentialist interpretations of science are not the only or even obvious choices.

Other interpretations of Big History, friendly to religious intuitions, are possible, though it would be silly to look for the specifics of science in sacred scriptures. Religionists must first comprehend scientific facts and scientific methods before they can constructively debate scientism and productively engage their own sacred traditions. One should not confuse the content of science with one's own metaphysical prejudices and ideological preferences.

But we must learn to walk, before we can run. We need to humbly put questions about the universe and the universal back at the heart of education, including and especially religious education. We should approach science from the vantage point of Big History, and teach religion in a way that embraces our common scientific origin story.

As the politician and sociologist Daniel Patrick Moynihan once quipped, "everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not his own facts." Big History is the largest compilation of facts that we have about the universe and ourselves. The challenge is to study this new story with eyes that see and ears that hear.

At Duke University, A Bizarre Tour Through American History And Palates

Archivist Amy McDonald invited some co-workers to help her re-create cherries jubilee from a university cookbook. But even with a historical paper trail, there were still things they couldn't figure out, like what to do after it starts flaming. Jerry Young/Getty Images hide caption

Archivist Amy McDonald invited some co-workers to help her re-create cherries jubilee from a university cookbook. But even with a historical paper trail, there were still things they couldn't figure out, like what to do after it starts flaming.

Eighteen doughnuts, toasted Brazil nuts, a can of deviled ham, an avocado "pear," and Worcestershire sauce: No, this list doesn't comprise an especially malicious ingredient basket for competitors on the Food Network's Chopped.

Instead, they are the makings for the "Goblin sandwich," a Halloween recipe published in a donut-maker's 1946 cooking pamphlet. The donuts are sliced like bread, and the other ingredients are mixed into a highly seasoned spread.

That theoretically edible but unpalatable recipe will long live in infamy at Duke University's David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Jacqueline Reid Wachholz, who directs the library's John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising and Marketing History, made the dish, and wrote in a blog post that, frankly, the ham was "not unlike dog food." She gave it to her husband and a particularly daring colleague to try, but most of her library mates declined.

The Salt

How Just 8 Flavors Have Defined American Cuisine

Wachholz's memorable cooking adventure was part of the Rubenstein Test Kitchen, a project in which the staff re-creates historical recipes from the thousands of cookbooks, manuscripts and other materials from the library's collections. The librarians often share the food with each other, and have even had a Thanksgiving-like showcase of many of the dishes. They also published their own zine in 2014.

The Rubenstein Test Kitchen doesn't have a physical cooking space on campus, despite its name, but does have a very popular blog on the school's website. The goal is to get people thinking about just how central food is to culture, says Rubenstein Research Services Director Elizabeth Dunn.

"Looking at foodways helps you understand exploration, trade, social developments, race, medicine, gender and history," Dunn says. "Just think about how the potato was important, or how abolitionists boycotted sugar because you couldn't make it without enslaved labor in the Caribbean."

Dunn also points out how technology like refrigerators, microwaves and yogurt makers have changed the American home. "Cookbooks in the 1970s tell women how to cook more quickly because they're in the work force."

Dunn herself has contributed a soldiers' soup from World War II. The "kitchen-sink" concoction was made by French people whose crops and farm machinery were repeatedly razed by Germans.

The Rubenstein Test Kitchen was loosely modeled after a University of Pennsylvania project called "Cooking in the Archives: Updating Early Modern (1600-1800) in a Modern Kitchen." The Duke test kitchen, now a few years old, picks up chronologically where that project leaves off — with the earliest recipes dating from around the Revolutionary War and stretching into the late 20th century.

The project makes for an often bizarre tour through American history and palates. Recipes are chosen for a variety of reasons: level of difficulty interest in regional cuisine how they represent a slice of U.S. life or quirk factor.

The intrepid cooks have resurrected a "sherif cake," a boozy nut cake that pre-dates the U.S. Constitution. A 1920s prune soufflé also made an appearance it was designed to help a pudgy fictional weight-loss guide/cookbook character named Phyllis stay "regular" and achieve that notoriously slim flapper figure. Then there was the tomato soup cake, a mid-20th century monstrosity that signaled the rise of canned, processed goods in U.S. diets.

Duke history graduate student Ashley Young studies Creole foodways of New Orleans and is a former Rubenstein intern. Though she's made hundreds of gumbos ("gumbo's not just regional, but unique person-by-person," she says), she chose two gumbo recipes.

But Young says it's not about re-creating an exact replica of forgotten food.

"That's a futile endeavor because our ingredients are different now it's taken years to create the most transportable bell pepper or to change the size of the onion," she says. "For me, this is about challenging this very skewed, exotic narrative that names Creole food as 'other,' and that focuses on connections to France and Spain, but ignores the cuisine's grounding in West Africa."

Associate University Archivist Amy McDonald recently chose to re-create cherries jubilee from a university cookbook her second Test Kitchen stint is one of the few in which the experimental cook already knows much about the person who originally contributed the recipe.

The Salt

For A More Ordered Life, Organize Like A Chef

McDonald chose cherries jubilee because it was a specialty of William "Big Bill" Jones, a longtime employee of the university dining hall. Big Bill ran much of the university's catering services, and he trotted out his famous cherry dessert — and the obligatory pyrotechnics — for generations of bigwigs and undergraduates from the 1940s to the 1960s. Jones, an African American on campus at a time when there were no or few black faculty or students, coached law students' wives on how to gracefully fire up and present the dessert.

For her part, McDonald was less concerned about having a silver urn — Jones' recommended impression-making vessel — than she was about making sure her home kitchen didn't erupt in flames. She invited co-workers over to man the fire and document her observations.

"I was very afraid of trying to film and set it on fire at the same time. All three of us gasped when it actually caught on fire," she says.

But even with a historical paper trail, there were still things she and her colleagues couldn't figure out. When they cranked up the heat on the cherries, "it wasn't a mushroom cloud or fireball. But we didn't quite know whether to let it burn or not." Her mise en place included a fire extinguisher.

Recipes can seem so straightforward and simple, but it turns out they can also be inscrutable, tricksters even. What they don't say can ultimately determine failure or success. It's also difficult to know what success looks like when there are unclear instructions, old-school measuring terms (what's a gill?), and modern appliances and taste buds. Test kitchen volunteers are still trying to figure out what a "meatbox" from the 1911 Kitchen Encyclopedia should literally look like. And substitutions for hard-to-find or "extinct" ingredients are essential.

As is a humorous tolerance for the mild culinary disaster. Many a Jell-O dish has been attempted, and many have failed, including McDonald's Jell-O pie that turned out to be strawberry soup in a crust.

The line between one person's delectable and another's disgusting is a thin one, with Dunn eschewing the Velveeta corn ring that quickly disappeared at a test kitchen event. Even so, few of the volunteers — other than the gumbo-loving Young — expect that they will ever make or consume their dish again. In fact, there's a certain charm in oddball recipes that have a high gross-out factor. Young is waiting for a pioneering soul to attempt an aspic because "I don't have enough courage to try it, and there's a pleasure in experiencing the strange and the unfamiliar."

Doubly so if a dish's taste profile says something about its time period or pedigree. Says one participant of a luridly orange-colored pie of Jell-O, orange sherbet and crushed pineapple: "This tastes exactly like what I imagine the 1970s to have been like."

Dr. Cynthia R. Greenlee is a North Carolina-based historian, writer and senior editor at Rewire. Her work has appeared in American Prospect, Bon Appetit, Gravy and Longreads, among other publications. Follow her on Twitter @CynthiaGreenlee.

An apple a day keeps Gessler away

Albrecht Gessler, a Habsburg bailiff ensconced in the canton of Uri, if you believe the tales, was rather full of himself and had his quirks, like any good tyrant worth his salt. Gessler’s particular thing was getting folks to praise his hat. No judgement here. With the power and might of the Austrian-Habsburg realm behind him, Gessler demanded that all under him greeted his hat, which he placed atop a long pole in the town of Altdorf. Truly, he was a despicable man.

Now, according to some, William Tell had already become embroiled in a conspiracy to resist the Austrians and Gessler. So, he refused publicly to bow and lift his hat to the Austrian’s hat. Bold move.

Rather unsurprisingly, Tell’s insolence pricked Gessler’s pride. Gessler, the fanatical Austrian menace that he was, devised a cunning punishment for Tell. He’d heard of the man’s prowess with a crossbow so ordered that he must shoot an apple from the top of his son’s head, only if he succeeded would both their lives be spared.

Of course, Tell succeeded and split the apple down the middle (it wouldn’t have made for a very inspiring story otherwise). But Gessler noticed that Tell had picked up two crossbow bolts, not just one. Curious (and apparently rather dim-witted) he questioned the burly Swiss why he needed two bolts. Well, the other one would have been to kill you with, Tell replied, to the shock of nobody except Gessler. Wrapped in fury, Gessler had him arrested on the spot and planned to lock him in the dungeon of the castle at the town of Küssnacht.

Tell was carted off and tossed onto a boat. While being transported across Lake Lucerne, a vicious storm whipped up, rocking the boat savagely from side to side. The guards, apparently well aware of Tell’s legendary strength, released him, pleaded that he save them all from certain death. Seizing the opportunity, Tell drove the boat towards the shore, grabbed his crossbow, skipped off onto land and darted off. Today, the place where he landed is still known as Tellsplatte, or Tell’s ledge.

Tell waited for the arrival of Gessler in a narrow hollow on the road to Küssnacht. We can imagine that his trigger finger itched in anticipation, probably remembering that vile hat sitting on top of the pole in Altdorf, the horror.

He finally saw Gessler approach, stepped out from behind a tree and shot him dead. From here, Tell is said to have met with other men from three Swiss cantons who had defied the Austrian rule. The men swore a solemn oath in the forest (known as the oath of Rütli) to work together and fight off the Austrian yoke. This was, as the story goes, a pivotal moment in the Swiss fight for freedom against Austria as it’s where the Old Swiss Confederacy began (kind of like the X-Men Origins series but without the claws and actually interesting).

Whether all this happened is hotly debated by historians. The story itself comes from the mind of Aegidius Tschudi, who didn’t put pen to paper until 250 long years after Tell’s death. Tschudi’s fact-checking has since been seriously questioned as it turned out that the oath of Rütli took place 16 years earlier than he believed, prompting the Swiss Independence day to be shifted. Likewise, there is even the suggestion that William Tell was actually Danish, or at least the story was. To the horror of the Swiss, Tell’s apple-shooting antics bear a remarkable resemblance to an old Viking tale that predates the Swiss legend by around 400 years.

Whether or not Tell existed, something which the Swiss will happily argue with you until the next ice age, may be questionable, but it sure does make for a wonderful tale – an independence struggle caused by a hat is simply made for Hollywood. It’s also a tale that bound Switzerland into what it is today, a curious conglomeration of 26 very different mini-states that somehow make a country. Fine work Willy.

Brief History of William Penn

William Penn (October 14, 1644&ndashJuly 30, 1718) founded the Province of Pennsylvania, the British North American colony that became the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. The democratic principles that he set forth served as an inspiration for the United States Constitution. Ahead of his time, Penn also published a plan for a United States of Europe, "European Dyet, Parliament or Estates."

Religious beliefs

Although born into a distinguished Anglican family and the son of Admiral Sir William Penn, Penn joined the Religious Society of Friends or Quakers at the age of 22. The Quakers obeyed their "inner light", which they believed to come directly from God, refused to bow or take off their hats to any man, and refused to take up arms. Penn was a close friend of George Fox, the founder of the Quakers. These were times of turmoil, just after Cromwell's death, and the Quakers were suspect, because of their principles which differed from the state imposed religion and because of their refusal to swear an oath of loyalty to Cromwell or the King (Quakers obeyed the command of Christ to not swear, Matthew 5:34).

Penn's religious views were extremely distressing to his father, Admiral Sir William Penn, who had through naval service earned an estate in Ireland and hoped that Penn's charisma and intelligence would be able to win him favor at the court of Charles II. In 1668 he was imprisoned for writing a tract (The Sandy Foundation Shaken) which attacked the doctrine of the trinity.

Penn was a frequent companion of George Fox, the founder of the Quakers, travelling in Europe and England with him in their ministry. He also wrote a comprehensive, detailed explanation of Quakerism along with a testimony to the character of George Fox, in his Introductionto the autobiographical Journal of George Fox.


Penn was educated at Chigwell School, Essex where he had his earliest religious experience. Thereafter, young Penn's religious views effectively exiled him from English society &mdash he was sent down (expelled) from Christ Church, Oxford for being a Quaker, and was arrested several times. Among the most famous of these was the trial following his arrest with William Meade for preaching before a Quaker gathering. Penn pleaded for his right to see a copy of the charges laid against him and the laws he had supposedly broken, but the judge, the Lord Mayor of London, refused &mdash even though this right was guaranteed by the law. Despite heavy pressure from the Lord Mayor to convict the men, the jury returned a verdict of "not guilty". The Lord Mayor then not only had Penn sent to jail again (on a charge of contempt of court), but also the full jury. The members of the jury, fighting their case from prison, managed to win the right for all English juries to be free from the control of judges. (See jury nullification.)The persecution of Quakers became so fierce that Penn decided that it would be better to try to found a new, free, Quaker settlement in North America. Some Quakers had already moved to North America, but the New England Puritans, especially, were as negative towards Quakers as the people back home, and some of them had been banished to the Caribbean.

The founding of Pennsylvania

In 1677, Penn's chance came, as a group of prominent Quakers, among them Penn, received the colonial province of West New Jersey (half of the current state of New Jersey). That same year, two hundred settlers from the towns of Chorleywood and Rickmansworth in Hertfordshire and other towns in nearby Buckinghamshire arrived, and founded the town of Burlington. Penn, who was involved in the project but himself remained in England, drafted a charter of liberties for the settlement. He guaranteed free and fair trial by jury, freedom of religion, freedom from unjust imprisonment and free elections.

King Charles II of England had a large loan with Penn's father, after whose death, King Charles settled by granting Penn a large area west and south of New Jersey on March 4, 1681. Penn called the area Sylvania (Latin for woods), which Charles changed to Pennsylvania in honor of the elder Penn. Perhaps the king was glad to have a place where religious and political outsiders (like the Quakers, or the Whigs, who wanted more influence for the people's representatives) could have their own place, far away from England. One of the first counties of Pennsylvania was called Bucks County, named after Buckinghamshire (Bucks) in England, where the Penn's family seat was, and from whence many of the first settlers came.

Although Penn's authority over the colony was officially subject only to that of the king, through his Frame of Government he implemented a democratic system with full freedom of religion, fair trials, elected representatives of the people in power, and a separation of powers &mdash again ideas that would later form the basis of the American constitution. The freedom of religion in Pennsylvania (complete freedom of religion for everybody who believed in God) brought not only English, Welsh, German and Dutch Quakers to the colony, but also Huguenots (French Protestants), Mennonites, Amish, and Lutherans from Catholic German states.

Penn had hoped that Pennsylvania would be a profitable venture for himself and his family. Penn marketed the colony throughout Europe in various languages and, as a result, settlers flocked to Pennsylvania. Despite Pennsylvania's rapid growth and diversity, the colony never turned a profit for Penn or his family. In fact, Penn would later be imprisoned in England for debt and, at the time of his death in 1718, he was penniless.

From 1682 to 1684 Penn was, himself, in the Province of Pennsylvania. After the building plans for Philadelphia ("Brotherly Love") had been completed, and Penn's political ideas had been put into a workable form, Penn explored the interior. He befriended the local Indians (primarily of the Leni Lenape (aka Delaware) tribe) , and ensured that they were paid fairly for their lands. Penn even learned several different Indian dialects in order to communicate in negiotiations without interpreters. Penn introduced laws saying that if a European did an Indian wrong, there would be a fair trial, with an equal number of people from both groups deciding the matter. His measures in this matter proved successful: even though later colonists did not treat the Indians as fairly as Penn and his first group of colonists had done, colonists and Indians remained at peace in Pennsylvania much longer than in the other English colonies.

Penn began construction of Pennsbury Manor, his intended country estate in Bucks County on the right bank of the Delaware River, in 1683.

Penn also made a treaty with the Indians at Shackamaxon (near Kensington in Philadelphia) under an elm tree. Penn chose to acquire lands for his colony through business rather than conquest. He paid the Indians 1200 pounds for their land under the treaty, an amount considered fair. Voltaire praised this "Great Treaty" as "the only treaty between those people [Indians and Europeans] that was not ratified by an oath, and that was never infringed." Many regard the Great Treaty as a myth that sprung up around Penn. However, the story has had enduring power. The event has taken iconic status and is commemorated in a frieze on the United States Capitol.

Penn visited America once more, in 1699. In those years he put forward a plan to make a federation of all English colonies in America. There have been claims that he also fought slavery, but that seems unlikely, as he owned and even traded slaves himself. However, he did promote good treatment for slaves, and other Pennsylvania Quakers were among the earliest fighters against slavery.

Penn had wished to settle in Philadelphia himself, but financial problems forced him back to England in 1701. His financial advisor, Philip Ford, had cheated him out of thousands of pounds, and he had nearly lost Pennsylvania through Ford's machinations. The next decade of Penn's life was mainly filled with various court cases against Ford. He tried to sell Pennsylvania back to the state, but while the deal was still being discussed, he was hit by a stroke in 1712, after which he was unable to speak or take care of himself.

Penn died in 1718 at his home in Ruscombe, near Twyford in Berkshire, and was buried next to his first wife in the cemetery of the Jordans Quaker meeting house at Chalfont St Giles in Buckinghamshire in England. His family retained ownership of the colony of Pennsylvania until the American Revolution.

Odds and Ends

On November 28, 1984 Ronald Reagan, upon an Act of Congress by Presidential Proclamation 5284 declared William Penn and his second wife, Hannah Callowhill Penn, each to be an Honorary Citizen of the United States.

There is a widely told, entirely apocryphal, story of an en encounter between Penn and George Fox, in which Penn expressed concern over wearing a sword (a standard part of dress for people of his station), and how this was not in keeping with Quaker beliefs. Fox responded, "Wear it as long as thou canst." Later, according to the story, Penn again met Fox, but this time without the sword. Penn then said, "I have taken thy advice I wore it as long as I could." Though this story is entirely unfounded, it serves as an instructive parable about Penn's Quaker beliefs.

There is a common misconception that the smiling Quaker found on boxes of Quaker Oats is William Penn. The Quaker Oats Company has stated that this is not true.

Haywood, William “Big Bill” Dudley

William Dudley Haywood (February 4, 1869 – May 18, 1928), better known as “Big Bill” Haywood, was a founding member and leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and a member of the Executive Committee of the Socialist Party of America. During the first two decades of the 20th century, he was involved in several important labor battles, including the Colorado Labor Wars, the Lawrence textile strike, and other textile strikes in Massachusetts and New Jersey.

William D. “Big Bill” Haywood ranks as one of the foremost and perhaps most feared of America’s labor radicals. Physically imposing with a thunderous voice and almost total disrespect for law, Haywood mobilized unionists, intimidated company bosses, and repeatedly found himself facing prosecution.

Haywood was born in Salt Lake City in 1869, the son of a Pony Express rider who died of pneumonia when Bill was just three. At age nine Bill punctured his right eye with a knife while whittling a slingshot, blinding it for life. (Haywood always turned his head to offer his left profile when photographed, but never replaced his milky, dead eye with a glass one.) Bill was also nine when he first began work in the mines. The 1886 Haymarket riots, trials, and executions made a deep impression on Haywood inspiring, he would later say, his life of radicalism. The Pullman railroad strikes of 1893 further strengthened Haywood’s interest in the labor movement. Then in 1896, while working a silver mine in Idaho, Haywood listened to a speech by Ed Boyce, President of the Western Federation of Miners (WFM). Haywood immediately signed up as a WFM member and by 1900 became a member of the organization’s executive board.

When Boyce retired as WFM president in 1902, he recommended Haywood and Charles Moyer assume leadership of the rapidly growing organization. It was not an easy arrangement. Moyer was cautious by nature, favoring negotiations over strikes and violence. Haywood, on the other hand, was volatile, impulsive and inclined toward radical confrontation. Haywood was a powerful speaker, and was a master at rallying working class audiences. The campaign for an eight-hour work day became one of Haywood’s principal causes. He would shout, “Eight hours of work, eight hours of play, eight hours of sleep– eight hours a day!”

From 1902 the WFM and the mine operators and government of Colorado were locked in the Colorado Labor Wars, “the closest the United States has ever approached outright class warfare.” The war took 33 lives, including both union and non-union workers. In one single, bloody incident at an Independence, Colorado train depot on June 4, 1904, 13 non-union miners were killed by a powerful explosion as they waited for a train. Haywood was suspected of being behind the explosion, and a virtual open season on unionists ensued.

Haywood was a Socialist and an atheist, but hardly a great thinker. He said “Socialism is so plain, so clear, so simple that when a person becomes an intellectual he doesn’t understand socialism.” Christianity, he said, “was all nonsense, based on that profane compilation of fables called the Bible.”

Orchard’s accusation that the Steunenberg assassination was ordered by Haywood led Colorado authorities to arrest him on murder charges in 1906 (Authorities looking to arrest Haywood found him sleeping with his sister-in-law). With time on his hands in the Boise jail, Haywood began to read. Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, Carlyle’s The French Revolution, were among his selections. While in jail, Haywood also ran for governor of Colorado on the Socialist ticket, designed new WFM posters, and took a correspondence course in law. When a Idaho jury announced its acquittal of Haywood in July, 1907, Haywood jumped to his feet, crying and laughing at the same time. After hugging supporters, he ran to shake hands with each juror.

In 1908, Haywood was ousted by Moyer from his executive postion with the WFM. Haywood turned his attention to the Industrial Workers of the World (the “Wobblies”). In 1915, Haywood became the formal head of the I.W.W. He led textile strikes in Massaschusetts and New Jersey and helped recruit the over three million mine, mill, and factory workers that at one time or another were Wobblies. In 1918, Haywood was convicted of violating a federal espionage and sedition act by calling a strike during wartime. He served a year in Leavenworth, then jumped bond in 1921 while out on appeal. Haywood fled to Moscow where he became a trusted advisor to the new Bolshevik government. Haywood died in Moscow in 1928. Half of his ashes were buried in the Kremlin near his friend John Reed and not far from Lenin’s tomb, an urn containing the other half of his ashes was sent to Chicago and buried near a monument to the Haymarket anarchists who first inspired his life of radicalism.

  • Peter Carlson, Roughneck: The Life and Times of Big Bill Haywood. New York: W.W. Norton, 1983.
  • Joseph R. Conlin, Big Bill Haywood and the Radical Union Movement. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1969.
  • Sam Dolgoff, “Revolutionary Tendencies in American Labor – Part 2,” The American Labor Movement: A New Beginning. Resurgence.
  • Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded: The Story of America in its First Age of Terror. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Elizabeth Jameson, All That Glitters: Class, Conflict, and Community in Cripple Creek. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998.
  • J. Anthony Lukas, Big Trouble: A Murder in a Small Western Town Sets Off a Struggle for the Soul of America. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997.

This work may also be read through the Internet Archive.

This work may also be read through the Internet Archive.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, www. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Haywood

One Reply to &ldquoHaywood, William “Big Bill” Dudley&rdquo

I respect Mr. Haywood for his frankness and outspokenness. He was said to have been invited by a loggers’ Union in Louisiana. This union was, as would be expected, compromises of Black and White, and others in between. And this was when Jim Crow laws was fully in operation. When Big Bill arrived, and began to speak, he was surprised that no single Black union member was in the room. He asked those present about the absence of African American union workers. They told him that it was against the law for Blacks and Whites to congregate, socialize, or for that matter, do things in common, less so, under one roof
Mr. Hay wood responded by saying how can you work alongside Black people who experience the same problems as you do, and not have them with you, under the same roof. Mr. Hay wood did not complete his speech until the Black union workers came in.
That is honesty, that is integrity, that is respect for human dignity.
Those are the qualities which, ironically, Samuel Gompers whished he had.
At 59, Haywood died too soon.
May his soul Rest In Peace

The Big Slide: A Short History of the Decline and Fall of the USA — Guest Post by Uncle Mike

The American Experiment peaked in the two decades following WWII and has been in decline ever since. Here’s the story in a nutshell.

When World War II ended, the USA was the lone superpower on Earth. We had the Bomb and had used it. Our military was victorious and unsurpassed. Our economy rose from the Great Depression and began to fire on all cylinders. We fed the world and pulled war-torn countries from oblivion.

Our might and hubris was tested in the ensuing Cold War. The hot wars never really stopped, and by 1965 we got mired in Vietnam. The Greatest Generation who fought and won WWII were succeeded by their children, the Baby Boomers. Those children did not feel the same desperate nationalism as their parents, and resisted the new war. The Generation Gap arose, and a Cultural Revolution ensued. Traditional values were rejected, and post-post-modern nihilism was accepted.

The Old Left, a holdover from the Great Depression, was supplanted by the New Left, radicalized by the Vietnam War. The transition was evident in 1972 with the Chicago riots, and the crushing defeat of George McGovern.

The Old Right also disintegrated with the resignation of Richard Nixon in 1974. Ford and Carter were bumblers, creating a vacuum of leadership. The Bureaucratic State responded, and became capable of running the country without a strong President or Congress. The citizenry became more disaffected, and yet more powerless to control the State. Runaway inflation threatened to crash the economy. The US lone superpower status dissipated with the loss of the Vietnam War to China and Russia and the subsequent collapse of our economic machinery.

Although Carter might be considered the first New Left President, he was weak and feckless. The growing New Left movement simmered in low echelon positions but began to infiltrate the bureaucracy. The USA lost it’s position as leader of the global community and various other countries gained leverage. The Cultural Revolution became ingrained, and the traditional moral backbone of the nation atrophied.

In 1980 a backlash of sorts occurred. The New Right gained favor with voters who elected an outsider, a Hollywood actor, Ronald Reagan. Reagan was the first Trump. He lambasted the Bureaucratic State and was scorned by New Left. Despite the inflamed rhetoric on both sides, or perhaps because of it, the Bureaucratic State amassed even more power and grew via deficit spending, mortgaging the future of the country. The economy recovered, but was now more dependent on government than ever before. Reagan’s promises were dashed.

Following the miserable failures of Bush I, the New Left got their first significant victory with the election of Clinton, a Baby Boomer and Cultural Revolutionary. Clinton’s lack of moral integrity and embrace of New Left policies sped the decline. He appointed deviants and grafters, and the already over amped Bureaucratic State was taken over by New Leftists. Like pigs in the corn patch, they rooted and ripped. Congress, too, was swarmed by New Leftists. Although Clinton ended his Presidency in disgrace, the damage done was permanent. The Cultural Revolution engulfed the Bureaucratic State, and drove the country’s moral underpinnings into full retreat. Universities, as well, became fully captured by the New Left.

The Digital Age also began during the Clinton years. This revived the US economy, but trade deficits drained much of America’s wealth to foreign powers. A new global oligarchy arose, and US influence as a military and economic power declined. The concentration of wealth into the pockets of a few was matched by the growing impoverishment of large segments of both rural and urban populations. Manufacturing jobs went overseas.

Bush II, who was elected by the thinnest of margins, was a throwback Old Rightist (like his father) and a Bureaucratic State lackey. He embroiled the country in foreign wars, reprising Vietnam. The Bureaucratic State, by then captured by the New Left, grew in power. Bush II did nothing to circumvent or oppose them. He became a caretaker, a fiddler, and an appeaser. The economy was bolstered by deficit spending, but the foundations were crumbling. The US lost another war, and our superpower status diminished even further. As a final injury, Bush II drove the economy into the New Depression.

Then came Obama, our first Black Muslim President. A Communist and an Alinsky-ite, Obama appointed New Left radicals, true anti-American seditionists, to power positions at every level of government. The US teetered and all but collapsed. The decline was in full swing culturally, politically, economically, and militarily. China became the new superpower. Global oligarchs gained unprecedented wealth and power. Schools, jobs, and churches failed nationally. The Bureaucratic State became dictatorial and oppressive — the Nanny State became a child abuser. Every institution, public and private, was overwhelmed by New Left insanity designed to weaken, degrade, and debase America.

Then Trump was elected, again by the thinnest of margins. Ostensibly a “populist”, he was not New Right but a sort of reformed liberal. His one strength was a clear vision of the dangers of the Bureaucratic State. Despite his many efforts and small victories, the now infamous Deep State overthrew him in their third coup attempt, with the aid of the New Left Media and a corrupt Congress.

The New Left has now assumed totalitarian power, using a Made in China “pandemic” to usurp the last remaining human rights (which the country was originally founded to secure). The economy, propped up by runaway deficits, is gasping for air. Large (global) oligarch interests are succeeding while small and medium-sized business are failing. Unemployment has risen to Great Depression levels. The citizenry are mired in shock and anger.

The dissolution of the USA is nearly complete. We have now been transformed into a puppet state of the new superpower, China. Feeble Joe Biden, the illegitimate New Left President, senile and corrupt, is a mandarin. The Deep State is intoxicated with power and has forced the population into house arrest. Schools have become online propaganda centers, and education in the truest sense has been curtailed. A new generation of illiterate serfs is being trained for servitude. Religion, what’s left of it, has gone underground, and moral depravity is the new ideal. Oppressions increase daily. Freedoms and rights, once the pride of the USA, are lost.

There is little hope for the USA today. We are going through the motions, enclaves here and there are hanging on to traditional self-rule, self-reliance, and moral life, but the writing is scrawled on the wall. Little can be done to right this ship — we have gone full Titanic. The future is uncertain, but we will never recover what has been lost. America as founded is over.

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Waterman’s Fountain Pen

Waterman used the capillarity principle to create his first pen. It used air to induce a steady and even flow of ink. His idea was to add an air hole in the nib and three grooves inside the feed mechanism. He christened his pen "the Regular" and decorated it with wood accents, obtaining a patent for it in 1884.

Waterman sold his hand-made pens out of the back of a cigar shop in his first year of operation. He guaranteed the pens for five years and advertised in a trendy magazine, The Review of Review. Orders began filtering in. By 1899, he had opened a factory in Montreal and was offering a variety of designs.

Waterman died in 1901 and his nephew, Frank D. Waterman, took the business overseas, increasing sales to 350,000 pens a year. The Treaty of Versailles was signed using a solid gold Waterman pen, a far cry from the day when Lewis Waterman lost his important contract due to a leaky fountain pen.

Later years

The next decade is a sad and private period in Blake's life. He did some significant work, including his designs for Milton's poems Lɺllegro and Il Penseroso (1816) and the writing of his own poem The Everlasting Gospel (c. 1818). He was also sometimes reduced to writing for others, and the public did not purchase or read his divinely inspired predictions and visions. After 1818, however, conditions improved. His last six years of life were spent at Fountain Court surrounded by a group of admiring young artists. Blake did some of his best pictorial work: the illustrations to the Book of Job and his unfinished Dante. In 1824 his health began to weaken, and he died singing in London, England, on August 12, 1827.

A History of Fat Presidents

Who, besides William Howard Taft (300+ pounds)--who may or may not have gotten stuck in the White House bathtub but certainly arranged for a bigger one to be installed there--were America's fattest presidents?

Naturally, this is a question spawned by the possibility of a Chris Christie run for the presidency. It turns out, not too many presidents have been rotund. In fact, only five presidents have been “obese” according to the antiquated BMI. Taft (42.3 on the BMI), Cleveland (34.6), McKinley (31.1), Taylor (30.2), and Teddy Roosevelt (30.2). Bill Clinton was overweight with a BMI of 28.3.

Of course, the BMI is a thoroughly flawed way of measuring how overweight or obese someone is, though I think we can all agree that Taft, despite his skills on the dance floor, fit that particular bill.

In the age of 24 hour cable news and the internet, I suspect the challenge of mounting a successful presidential campaign as an overweight American has become distinctly more difficult (and the same applies for short people, Mitch Daniels).

Noah aligns the five above obese presidents with Arthur Schlesinger Jr.’s “greatness” rankings and finds that, “obesity is, if anything, a slight presidential plus, with Zachary Taylor pulling the ranking down, Theodore Roosevelt pushing it back up, and Grover Cleveland and William McKinley nudging it a little higher.”

Unfortunately, greatness rankings will likely not loom large in the electorate’s collective subconscious in November, and I suspect voter prejudice will keep the number of presidents at the upper ends of the BMI to a minimum.

Watch the video: Rock of Ages 2: Bigger u0026 Boulder Gameplay. Tutorial and Battle Vs William Wallace


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