Sigiriya

Sigiriya


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Sigiriya in Sri Lanka combines a natural phenomenon with history and religion. Comprised of a vast red rock mound rising over a thousand feet, it is thought that Sigiriya (meaning “Lion Rock”) was originally inhabited during the third century BC, when a Buddhist monastery was founded there.

In the fifth century AD, it is thought that Sigiriya’s use changed from a sacred site to a royal one. It is said that, having assassinated his father King Dhatusena and taken the throne, King Kassapa I of the Anuradhapura Kingdom sought an easily defensible place to build his palace and that he chose to construct it atop Sigiriya.

The ruins of Kassapa’s castle can still be seen there today and include the remnants of a city at the foot of the rock. From these ruins, it is evident that the king’s city was a grand one with gardens, monuments and, of course, his palace.

In the late fifth century, Kassapa was defeated in battle and Sigiriya once again became a Buddhist monastery, eventually falling into decline.

One of the most notable sites at Sigiriya is its series of frescoes depicting numerous female figures. Originally, there would have been hundreds of similar frescoes. There is a debate as to whether these were created under Kassapa or whether these were the creation of the Buddhist monks as numerous representations of one of their deities.

Listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1982, Sigiriya is now open to the public.


SIGIRIYA

Sigiriya is one of the most valuable historical monuments of Sri Lanka. Referred by locals as the Eighth Wonder of the World this ancient palace and fortress complex has significant archaeological importance and attracts thousands of tourists every year. It is probably the most visited tourist destination of Sri Lanka.

The palace is located in the heart of the island between the towns of Dambulla and Habarane on a massive rocky plateau 370 meters above the sea level.

Sigiriya rock plateau, formed from magma of an extinct volcano, is 200 meters higher than the surrounding jungles. Its view astonishes the visitors with the unique harmony between the nature and human imagination.

The fortress complex includes remnants of a ruined palace, surrounded by an extensive network of fortifications, vast gardens, ponds, canals, alleys and fountains.

The surrounding territories of Sigiriya were inhibited for several thousand years. Since 3th century BC the rocky plateau of Sigiriya served as a monastery. In the second half of the 5th century king Kasyapa decided to construct a royal residence here.

After his death Sigiriya again became a Buddhist monastery until the 14th century, when it was abandoned.

The main entrance is located in the northern side of the rock. It was designed in the form of a huge stone lion, whose feet have survived up to today but the upper parts of the body were destroyed.

Thanks to this lion the palace was named Sigiriya. The term Sigiriya originates from the word Sihagri, i.e. Lion Rock.

The western wall of Sigiriya was almost entirely covered by frescoes, created during the reign of Kasyapa. Eighteen frescoes have survived to this day.

The frescoes are depicting nude females and are considered to be either the portraits of Kasyapa’s wives and concubines or priestess performing religious rituals. Despite the unknown identity of the females depicted in the frescoes, these unique ancient paintings are celebrating female beauty and have incredible historical significance.

One of the most striking features of Sigiriya is its Mirror wall. In the old days it was polished so thoroughly that the king could see his reflection in it. The Mirror wall is painted with inscriptions and poems written by the visitors of Sigiriya.

The most ancient inscriptions are dated from the 8th century. These inscriptions are proving that Sigiriya was a tourist destination more than a thousand years ago. Today, painting on the wall is strictly prohibited.


What did Sigiriya Look Like with Frescoes?

Photo: Artist's impression of Sigiriya in the past

The Sigiriya complex was completed nearly 1600 years ago. The frescoes were an integral part of the overall awe-inspiring sight and were part of a huge tapestry that extended in a gigantic band around the waist of the rock. This immense picture gallery of over 500 semi-naked females covered an area of approximately 5600 sq meters. It extended from the top of the zigzag stairway at the Terraced Gardens on the southern end of the rock, to the north-eastern end, terminating at the Lion Staircase.


සිගීරියේ මූලාරම්භය පිළිබඳ පුරා කථා [ සංස්කරණය ]

ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ පුරාණ ඵෙතිහාසික වංශ කතාවක් වූ මහා වංශ‍යෙහි කාශ්‍යප විස්තර වන්නේ ධාතුසේන රජුගේ පුත්‍රයා වශයෙනි. කාශ්‍යප තම පියා ධාතුසේන රජු පණ පිටින් බිත්තියකට බැඳ ජීවිතක්ෂයට පත් කොට තම සහෝදරයා වූ මොග්ගල්ලානට උරුමව තිබූ රජකම පැහැර ගත්තේ ය. මොග්ගල්ලාන යනු රජුගේ අග බිසවගේ පුත්‍රයා ය. මොග්ගල්ලාන ඉන්දියාවට පලා ගියේ තම සහෝදරයා වූ කාශ්‍යප විසින් ඝාතනය කරනු ලැබේය යන බියෙනි. ඵහෙත් කාශ්‍යපගෙන් පලි ගන්නා බවට ඔහු ශපත කළේ ය. ඔහු ආපසු ලංකාවට පැමිණ තමනට උරුම රාජ්‍යය ලබා ගන්නෙමැයි අදහසින් ඉන්දියාවේ සිට සේනා සංවිධානය කළේ ය.

මොග්ගල්ලානගේ ආපසු පැමිණීම නියත වශයෙන්ම සිදු වන බව සිතූ කාශ්‍යප සීගිරිය බලකොටුවක් වශයෙන් තෝරා ගෙන ඵහි මතුයෙහි මාළිගාවක් ද ඉදි කළේය. මොග්ගල්ලාන ආපසු පැමිණ යුද්ධ ප්‍රකාශ කළේය. යුද්ධය කෙරීගෙන යන අතරතුරේ දී කාශ්‍යපගේ හමුදාව ඔහු තනි කළේ ය. කාශ්‍යප තම කඩුව මත ඇද වැටී සිය දිවි හානි කර ගත්තේ ය. පුරාවෘත්තවල සහ ජනප්‍රවාදවල සඳහන් වන අන්දමට ඵ් පුවත මෙසේය "කාශ්‍යප තම යුද හස්තියා සටන් කිරීමට සුදුසු ස්ථානයක් සොයා වෙනත් තැනකට මෙහෙය වූ විට ඔහුගේ හමුදාව ඵය වරදවා තේරුම් ගත්තේ කාශ්‍යප පැරදී පසු බසින ලෙසිනි" ඉන් පසු ඔහුගේ හමුදාව කාශ්‍යප සම්පූර්ණයෙන් ම තනි කොට පලා ගියහ. මොග්ගල්ලාන තම අගනුවර ලෙස අනුරාධපුරය තෝරා ගත්තේ ය. සීගිරිය ආරාම සංකීර්ණයක් බවට පත් විය.

වෙනත් කතාන්දරවලින් කියවෙන්නේ සීගිරියේ මුල් නිමැවුම්කරු ධාතුසේන රජු බවත් තම පිය රජු සිහිවීම පිණිස කාශ්‍යප එහි වැඩ කටයුතු නිම කළ බවත් ය. කාශ්‍යප රජු විනෝදකාමියෙකු මෙන්ම සීගිරිය විනෝද මාළිගාවක් ලෙස ඉදි වූ බවත් වෙනත් කතාන්දරයකින් කියවෙයි. කාශ්‍යපගේ අවසාන ඉරණම පිළිබඳව තිබෙන තොරතුරු අස්ථීර ය. සමහර ප්‍රවාදවල කියවෙන්නේ කාශ්‍යපගේ අනියම් බිරියක විසින් වස දීමෙන් ඔහු ඝාතනය වූ බවයි. ඔහුගේ අවසාන සටනේදී ඔහුගේ හමුදාව විසින් තනි කිරීම නිසා තම අසිපතින් ගෙල සිඳ ගෙන කාශ්‍යප දිවි තොර කර ගත් බව තවත් කතන්දරයකින් කියැවේ. සීගිරිය නිර්මාණය බෞද්ධ ප්‍රජාවගේ කාර්යයක් වූ බවත් ඊට හමුදා සහභාගිත්වයක් කිසිසේත් නො වුණු බවත් තවදුරටත් විස්තර කරන අර්ථකථනයන් ද තිබේ. පුරාණ ලංකාවේ මහායාන හා ථෙරවාද දෙපාර්ශවය අතර පැවති තරඟයේදී සීගිරි පරිශ්‍රය වැදගත් ස්ථානයක් ඉසිලූ බව ද කියැවේ.


The Mirror Wall, now stained in hues of orange, is a 200m long parapet wall built into the near perpendicular side of Sigiriya Rock. It was once highly polished to shine like a mirror, hence its name. The wall provided an irresistible surface on which are inscribed with numerous ancient graffiti praising the beauty of this citadel. The Mirror Wall is one of the few structures at Sigiriya which has stood almost intact for over the fifteen centuries. It is a testament to the ingenuity and workmanship of the ancient craftsman who built it.

The Sigiriya Graffiti are over 1800 pieces of prose, poetry and commentary written by ancient tourists on the surface of the Mirror Wall. The majority of the graffiti refer to the beautiful paintings of semi-nude females, the Sigiriya Frescoes, that once covered most of the western surface of Sigiriya Rock. The texts suggest that the females depicted in the frescoes are the ladies of the king's royal court - the ladies of the harem.


Sigiriya - Sri Lanka

Sigiriya also known as the Lion's Rock is a rock fortress and a palace located in the Matale district of Sri Lanka. This ruin is surrounded by gardens, ponds and other structures. Sigiriya was built by King Kassapa and it is included as a World Heritage site. Sigiriya is the best preserved city centre in Asia.

History

Earlier is was a rock-shelter mountain monastery which was donated by Buddhist devotees. Later King Kassapa renovated it by building gardens and palace. After his death it was again used as a monastery.

Human habilitation in Sigiriya at its earliest was found to be nearly five thousand years during the Mesothilic period.

Rock inscriptions are carved near the drip ledges on many of the shelters, recording the donation of the shelters to the Buddhist monastic order as residences. These have been made within the period between the third century B.C and the first century A.D.

In 1831 Major Jonathan Forbes of the 78th Highlanders of the British army while returning on horseback from a trip to Polonnaruwa came across the "bush covered summit of Sigiriya". Sigiriya came to the attention of antiquarians and later archaeologists.

The Sigiriya complex itself consists of the central rock and two rectangular precincts which are surrounded by two moats and three ramparts. The city is based on a square module.

Structure of The Lion Rock

The Sigiriya Rock is actually a hardened magma plug from an extinct volcano. The most significant feature of the rock would be the Lion staircase leading to the palace garden. The Lion could be visualized as a huge figure towering against the granite cliff. The opened mouth of the Lion leads to the staircase built of bricks and timber. However the only remains of this majestic structure are the two paws and the masonry walls surrounding it. Nevertheless the cuts and groves in the rock face give an impression of a lion figure.

Frescos

There are only two pockets of paintings covering most of the western face of the rock. The ladies depicted in the paintings have been identified as Apsaras. However a lot of these ladies have been wiped out when the palace was again converted into a monastery so as to not to disturb meditation.

The Gardens

The gardens are amongst the oldest landscaped gardens in the world. The gardens are divided into three distinct but linked forms water gardens, Cave and boulder gardens, and terraced gardens.

The Mirror Wall

Originally this wall was so well polished that the king could see himself whilst he walked alongside it. Made of a kind of porcelain, the wall is now partially covered with verses scribbled by visitors to the rock. Well preserved, the mirror wall has verses dating from the 8th century. People of all types wrote on the wall, on varying subjects such as love, irony, and experiences of all sorts. Further writing on the mirror wall has now been banned.


Sigiriya Frescoes,History,Mirror Wall,Water Technology,Photos with Description in Sinhala

Sigiriya Rock Fortress of Sri Lanka is considered by the local population as the 8th Wonder of the World, retroflex ancient City Planning, Hydraulic Technology, Defense, Arts, Garden landscaping and Engineering around 5th Century AD. Called also as the "Lion Rock" it reaches a height of 200 meters from the surrounding landscape. Sigiriya is located at Matale district near Dambulla. It can be reached along Colombo- Habarana highway by turning towards east from Inamaluwa. Proceeding about 10 km from Inamaluwa and passing Kimbissa township one arrives at Sigiriya.

Sigiriya history is well cronicled and before Sigiriya became a Kingdom, Sigiriya Rock base and the places such as Pidurangala which were endowed with many caves and a temple had been dwelled by Buddhist monks from around 3rd Century BC. It is also found that these areas had been inhabitant by people prior to King Kassapa's rein. Many caves have Brahmi Inscriptions dating back from 3rd Century BC to 1st century AD.

After King Mahanama who ruled Anuradhapura from 410- 432 AD, a prince named Dhatusena became the King of Anuradhapura in 459 AD, defeating the Indian invader 'Pandu'. King Dhatusena was the ruler who constructed Kala Wewa or the Kala Wewa Tank, by building a dam across Kala Oya , which is a small river type. The man-made 54 mile long Yoda Ela, which takes water from Kala Wewa to Tissa Wewa is considered as an Irrigation engineering wonder even at the present day. It has a gradient of 6 inches per mile along the first 17 miles , which means the level different is just over 8 feet even after the first 17 miles along the canal. The high level of Water technology knowledge during this period can be assessed from the construction work that remains still in working condition. During this king's rein the famous full-relief Aukana Buddha statue was constructed out of a rock which stands 42 feet high depicting the art and craft of stone sculpturing.

He had two sons from two of his queens. Mugalan [ also called as Moggallana ] from the head queen and Kassapa's [ also called as Kashyapa ] from a companion queen. Prince Kashyapa, with the help of the general of the army of King Dhatusena, named Migara, got his father killed and became the King. Prince Mugalan, fearing for his life, escaped to India. The Buddhist Bhikkus and the people were against his conduct and favoured Price Mugalan for the rulership. Fearing that Mugalan will come with an army from India to avenge him at a later day, King Kashyapa decided to make Sigiriya as his kingdom. During his rule of eighteen years from 477 AD to 495 AD Sigiriya Kingdom was created. It is believed that he sought the refuge of Sigiriya rock for his safety fearing for his life.

After 18 years, Prince Mugalan came with an army from India to fight with King Kassapa. During the battle Kashyapa killed himself thus Mugalan became the King. He went back to Anuradhapura and ruled the country from there and handed over Sigiriya back to the Buddhist priests. Sigiriya as a Kingdom was abandoned in around 1150 AD and was almost forgotten for the next seven centuries. Though King Kashyapa is not regarded in high esteem in Sri Lankan history due to his dubious conduct, he is credited as the ruler with unsurpassed imagination put into reality to create a Sri Lankan style marvel of high caliber art and engineering construction skills that could even challange the other world structures at that time, which definitely is amazing even in the 21st century with whatever is remaining as ruins of Sigiriya Kingdom thus considering Sigiriya as the Eighth wonder of the World.

Art and Engineering of Sigiriya

The Sigiriya Rock Fortress itself has its unique identity due to its shape not found anywhere else in the island and can be recognized miles away from the distance.

Sigiriya was rediscovered during the rule of the British, by Major H. Forbes in 1831. Climbing to the Sigiriya summit was achieved by A.H.Adams and J.Bailey in 1853.

Sigiriya Rock Fortress being the citadel fortress, had been well designed for its defenses by having ramparts and moats built around it. There are several approaches to the inner city and the most prominent is the Western entrance. From the summit of the rock, the land areas up to distances of tens of miles can be watched making it hard for the enemy to make a surprise attack to the kingdom.

King Kassapa had reverted his fortress to an ecological wonder by having Royal Pleasure Gardens, Water Gardens , Fountain Gardens and Boulder Gardens made inside the inner city as well as at the palace premises on the Rock summit. Employment of Water Technology had been tremendous since there are water fountains that are manmade and that are still working. Also there are Ponds in rock summit considered to be filled with water from a lower elevation.

The most renowned is the Sigiriya Frescoes of Sigiri Damsels locally called as 'Sigiri Apsaras' painted on a Western Rock face cavity about 100 meters high from the rock base .There now remains around 21 paintings of Sigiriya Frescoes but there had been around five hundred paintings during King Kassapa's time along several other places of the same Western Rock face.


Click on Thumbnail Photos to see full size image s of the Sigiri Frescoes done on Rock cavity.

Another interesting construction of Sigiriya Rock Fortress is the Sigiriya Mirror Wall, which is covered with graffiti that consists of Sinhala Poems from the 7th to the 10th centuries AD. These were written by the people who came to see Sigiriya during those long years. These are called as "Sigiri kurutu gee" by the local population. Coming along the path of the mirror wall, one find the Lion Paw Terrace or Platform. Only two huge Lion's paws are remaining now but earlier there had been an enormous Lion figure or statue at the entrance. Through the Lion's paw stairway, the summit can be reached taking the iron stairway built on to the rock face. On the summit are the remains of the Palace building foundations and few ponds on a area of about 3 acres of rock summit. The largest pond was made by cutting out the rock and it is assumed that utilizing the great wind force occurring on the summit, water was brought up to fill this tank by a hydraulic system using wind power from the ground level. This is one of the top most examples of Water Technology remained at the time in addition to Water irrigatin feats with building huge artificial tanks and canals to take water many miles afar.

For the reader, there are hundreds of interesting Sigiriya Fortress images with description included in this web page. Through the information on Sigiriya appearing in this web page an essay can be easily created.

Walking up to the Sigiriya Rock from the Car Park

When visiting Sigiriya Rock Fortress the main Vehicle park for the visitors is at the New Sigiriya Town and after purchasing the Ticket, one needs to walk by foot up to the Sigiriya Rock Fortress through the path bordered with trees for about a kilometer. Passing the outer moat and the rampart one comes to the Yan Oya. Passing it there is the Archeological Museum to the Right side .There is a second Moat that has to be crossed by the bridge erected there to proceed towards the Sigiriya rock. Moats were used as a defensive method at earlier times to safeguard citadels from enemy.

Click on Thumbnail Photos to see full size image and the photo description.


25 Things You Should Know About The Ancient Rock Fortress of Sigiriya

Near-vertical walls soar to a flat-topped summit that safeguards the ruins of an ancient civilization.

Hidden atop a strange 200-meter high geological formation lie the magnificent ancient ruins of a temple reaching for the stars: Sigiriya. This ancient site is considered by many scholars the eighth wonder of the world.

Sigiriya is considered one of the most valuable historical monuments of Sri Lanka. Rightfully, this ancient ‘city’ is the most visited tourist attraction in the country.

This ancient rock fortress located in the northern Matale District near Dambulla’s town includes remnants of a ruined palace, surrounded by an extensive network of fortifications, vast gardens, ponds, canals, alleys, and fountains.

This article brings you 25 facts about an ancient rock fortress city, unlike any other.

Sigiriya is one of the UNESCO-listed World Heritage Sites. It is one of the best-preserved examples of ancient urban planning.

The name of this place is derived from this structure—Sīhāgiri, the Lion Rock.

The term Sigiriya originates from the word Sihagri, i.e., Lion Rock.

The archeological site is located on a massive geological formation rising 200 meters.

Geologists noted that the Sigiriya rock is a remnant of an eruption of hardened magma of an extinct and long-eroded volcano.

The ancient city is thought to be one of the most important urban planning sites of the first millennium. Experts argue that the site plan is considered very elaborate and imaginative.

According to experts, Shigiriya’s site plan combines a wide range of symmetry and asymmetry concepts, intentionally interlocking the surroundings’ human-made geometrical and natural forms.

Sigiriya features several water-retaining structures and sophisticated surface and subsurface hydraulic systems, some of which—incredibly—remain operational until today.

The site was both a palace and a fortress.

The ancient city is home to the oldest landscaped gardens in the world.

The site’s gardens are divided into three different but connected forms: water gardens, cave and boulder gardens, and terraced gardens.

Sigiriya is home to the so-called Mirror Wall. This structure was so well polished in the distant past that the king could see his reflection when walking alongside it.

The mirror wall features more than 685 verses written in the 8th, 9th, and 10th centuries C.E.

The site is regarded as one of the oldest tourist attractions globally, as people have rushed to visit the place for more than a thousand years.

Some scholars—Lal Srinivas and Mirando Obesekara—believe that Sigiriya may be the Alakamandava (the City of the Gods) built up before 50 centuries ago by King Kubera.

It is believed that during the third century B.C., the rocky plateau of Sigiriya served as a monastery. However, in the second half of the 5th-century, King Kasyapa decided to construct a royal residence.

King Kashyapa revolutionized the site, developing it into a complex city and fortress. He built a wide range of elaborate structures on the rock summit as well as around it. He erected defensive structures, palaces, and gardens, as well as religious structures.

After his death, Sigiriya became a Buddhist monastery until the 14th century, when it was partially abandoned.

According to the Palm Leaf Book (Puskola Potha) of Ravana Watha, the architect of Sigiriya’s ancient rock fortress city was Maya Danava. In Hindu mythology, Maya was a great ancient king of the asura, daitya and rākṣasa races. Maya was known for his brilliant architecture. In Mahabharatha, Mayasabha, the hall of illusions, was named after him.

The architecture and design of Sigiriya are out of this world. The entire rock-fortress was designed in the shape of a huge lion, whose massive feet remain standing today, despite his body being destroyed in the distant past.

The area where Sigiriya is located has been inhabited since very ancient times. Researchers have found evidence that many rock shelters and caves around the ancient site have been inhabited by Buddhist monks as early as the third century B.C.

The Sigiriya Rock shows signs of habitation from five thousand years ago, during the Mesolithic Period.

The site was rediscovered in 1831 when Major Jonathan Forbes of the 78th Highlanders of the British army found a “bush covered summit of Sigiriya.”

The first archaeological work at Sigiriya started in the 1890s.

H.C.P. Bell—a British civil servant and a commissioner in the Ceylon Civil Service, born in British India—was the first archaeologist to conduct extensive research on Sigiriya.


සීගිරි බලකොටුව [ සංස්කරණය ]

ප්‍රධාන අවධි [ සංස්කරණය ]

  • කාශ්‍යප යුගය (ක්‍රි.පූ.5-ක්‍රි.පූ.3 දක්වා)
  • කාශ්‍යප යුගය (ක්‍රි.පූ.497-475 දක්වා)
  • පසු කාශ්‍යප යුගය (ක්‍රි.ව.6-13 දක්වා)
  • අප්‍රකට යුගය (ක්‍රි.ව.13-17 දක්වා)
  • මහනුවර යුගය (ක්‍රි.ව.17-19 දක්වා)
  • නූතන යුගය (ක්‍රි.ව.19-අද දක්වා)


තද පැහැයෙන් යුතුව ක්ෂිතිජය සිප ගනිමින් උතුරට නෙරා යන මහා පව්ව පාමුල අතිශය ප්‍රතාපවත් ව වැදහොත් සිංහරාජයෙකුගේ විලාසෙන් නිමවා ඇති හෙයින් මෙයට සිංහගිරිය හෙවත් සීගිරිය යන නාමය පටබැඳුණි. සිංහරාජ තෙම් සැතපුම් ගණනක් ඈතට විහිදෙන බියමුසු හැඟිමක් දැනවුවත් සිංහරූපය දැකීමෙන් එහි ගිය පැරැන්නන් තරම්ම නුතන යුගයේ මුල් ම පුරා විද්‍යාඥයන් ද, වශීකෘත වු බව 1898 දී ඒච්.සී.පී.බෙල් මහතා ප්‍රකාශ කර ඇත. දැනට ශේෂව ඇතත් සිංහයාගේ බාහු යුගලය පමණක් වුව ද කෙනකු තුළ ප්‍රතාපය හා බලය පිළිබද අපුරු හැඟිමක් දැන වීමට ප්‍රමාණවත් බව කැටපත් පවුරේ ලියු මේ ගීයෙන් පැහැදිලි වේ.

දක්නට ලැබෙන ලක්ෂණ [ සංස්කරණය ]

  • පර්වත මස්තකයේ තිබෙන රජ මාළිගාව
  • ගඩලින් තැනූ සිංහයාගේ රූප ඇඳ තිබෙන සීගිරි ලලනාවන්
  • සීගිරි කැටපත් පවුර
  • දිය අගල්

පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක නටඹුන් හා විශේෂ ලක්ෂණ [ සංස්කරණය ]

ක්‍රි.ව. 5 වැනි සියවසේ කාශ්‍යප රජු විසින් තනන ලද පුරාණ මාළිගයක් සීගිරියෙහි ඇත්තේය. කාශ්‍යප රජු සීගිරිය මුදුනේ මාළිගාව තනද්දී රාවණ රජුගේ මාළිගයෙහි නටඹුන් හමුවූ බවට කතාවක්ද පවතී.පර්වතයේ සමතලා මතුපිට එම මාළිගයෙහි නටඹුන් තිබේ. මැද හරියේ තිබෙන සමතලා බිමෙහි සිංහ ද්වාරයක්ද කුරුටු ගී තිබෙන කැටපත් පිහිටා ඇත. පහළ මාළිගාව පර්වතයේ පහළ බෑවුමට හේත්තු වන්නට නිර්මාණය කරන ලද දිය අගල් තාප්ප හා උද්‍යාන පර්වත පාමුල සිට මීටර් සිය ගණනක් දුරට විහිදී ඇත.මෙම භූමිය මාළිගාවකින් හා බලකොටුවකින් යුක්තය. දැනට තිබෙන ප්‍රමාණවත් නටඹුන් වලින් එය නිර්මාණය කළ අයගේ විශිෂ්ඨ හැකියාව හා නිර්මාණශීලිත්වය පිළිබද අගනා හැගීම් එය නැරඹීමට පැමිණෙන අයගේ සිතෙහි ජනිත කරවයි.

සීගිරි භූමි සැළැස්ම පළමු සහශ්‍රයේ නාගරික සැලසුම් කරණයේ අනර්ඝ උදාහරණයක් ලෙස සීගිරි නිර්මාණය දැකිය හැක. භූමි සැළසුම ඉතාමත් අලංකාර සහ සුක්ෂ්‍යම ලෙස සකස් කරන ලද්දක් ලෙස සැලකේ. සැලසුම් සකස් කිරීමේදි ජ්‍යාමිතික සැළසුම් සහ අවට පිහිටි ස්වාභාවික වස්තූන්ගෙන් පිහිටීම පිළිබදව ඉතා හොදින් නිරීක්ෂණය කර සංයෝග කර ගැළපීම් හා නොගැලපීම් සංකල්පය එක් කොට ඇති බව පෙනේ. පර්වතය බටහිර දෙසින් තිබෙන උද්‍යාණය රාජකීයන් උදෙසා සුදුසු ලෙස සකස්කර ඇත. උද්‍යානයෙහි ජලය රදවා තබා ගන්නා ව්‍යුහය නිර්මාණය කර ඇත. ඒවා සකස් කිරීමේදී පොලව යටින් දිවෙන ජල පීඩන ක්‍රමයක් යොදා ගෙන ඇති අතර මෙයින් සමහරක් අදද ක්‍රියාත්මක මට්මේහි තිබේ. පර්වතයට දකුණින් මිනිස් අතින් නිම කළ ජලාශයකි. මෙවැනි ජලාශ මීට පෙර ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ වියළි කලාපයෙහිද බොහෝ සෙයින් ප්‍රයෝජනයට ගැනුණි. සීගිරි බිමට පිවිසෙන ස්ථාන වල දොරටු පහකි. ඒවා අලංකාර ලෙස නිමවා ඇති බටහිර දොරටුව රාජකීයන් උදෙසා වෙන්කර තිබුණා යැයි විශ්වාස කළ හැක. මෙහි වාස්තු විද්‍යනුකුල සැලසුමක් සහිතව ඉදිකර ඇත.එමෙන්ම සීගිරිය දුර්ග බලකොටුවකි. ජල දුර්ග, වන දුර්ග, ගිරි දුර්ග ආදියෙන් සීගිරිය සමන්විතය.


More History

Even though the history records of Sigiriya starts with the king Kashyapa, there are many folklore which connects Sigiriya with the long lost ancestors of Singhalese people. According to the folklore the Sigiriya rock was selected for building a palace long before Kashyapa. It is believed the elder brother of Demon King Ravana, Vaisravana built his palace on the rock. Which was developed by Kashyapa as a fortress. this is what I could compile using the folklore and myth.

While my visit to Sigiriya, I was asking myself the question, how can a king who only ruled for 18 years, build and develop a place like Sigiriya? Of cause what we see today is just bits and pieces of what was once a Royal three story palace and a park, complete with fountains, swimming pools and beautiful kiosks. It could be that the King Kashyapa ruled for more than 18 years, and the author if Mahavansa got the timing incorrect. However we have reason to believe this is not the case, simply because the Author of Mahavansa (Venerable Mahanama Thero) actually witnessed the whole story from the Pidurangala temple which is close to the Sigiriya rock itself.

The other plausible explanation is that Sigiriya was already a fortress and most of its architecture was intact when Kashyapa decided it as the venue for his palace. This is where the folklore aligns with the history records. However it should be noted that Mahavansa or any other history book available to date does not describe this fact.

According to the folklore, Sigiriya was known as Alakamanda or Alakamandawa by Singhalese Yakkha Tribes. Alakamandawa was the palace of Kubera (also called Kuwera).

According to Hindu mythology, Kubera (also read as Kuvera), is believed to be the lord of wealth. And Kubera is also believed to be the god-king of the Yakshas. According to Hindu scripts, He could be regarded as a protector of the world and the overload of many semi-divine species. Some of the Vedic texts describe Kubera as the chief of evil spirits, where Hindu epics depict him as a god.


Watch the video: History of Sigiriya


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