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This question is partly inspired by this question.
Abolishing monarchies is traditionally done via a revolution (I'm not aware of any instances of the converse). If the revolutions turn out violent, like in France and Russia, the royals and possibly other nobles tend to get executed. However, there are also cases, notably Serbia, where a viable descendant is available. So, basically, once a monarchy is abolished, there are two options: there either are (direct or otherwise) descendants of the royal family and/or other noble families left or there aren't.
Have there been instances of a monarchy being reintroduced in a country in either of those cases?
I imagine that it would be somewhat harder to just "reinvent" some royal family than to reinstate an already living one. There is also the possibility of elected monarchs, but I think that is just theoretical. In any case, there must be political incentive to do so, in the case of a republic, some party must somehow push trough the required constitutional and other changes. The required support would presumably imply that they are also the ruling party and probably that he current head of state is a dominant member of that party, so basically they would undermine their own power, which is a hard thing for politicians to do.
Albania is an example: it had a very complicated history in the early twentieth century. The Provisional Government of Albania was established in 1912 as part of the Balkan Wars which removed the Ottoman Empire from almost all of the Balkans. That was followed by a monarchy, the Principality of Albania, 1913-25, under a German prince, and then the Albanian Republic from 1925-28.
Ahmet Zogu was Prime Minister of the Principality, 1922-25, the sole President of the Republic, then became King Zog I in 1928 as monarch of the Kingdom of Albania. This lasted until spring 1939, when Italy took over Albania and the former royal family went into exile. Zog was not related to the German prince, or the Ottoman Emperors. For extra complexity, it appears that the English sportsman C B Fry was offered the throne of Albania in the early 1920s.
Another example is the French Second Republic from 1848-51. It was formed in a revolution against the French monarchy, which had been restored after the downfall of Napoleon I. Its president was Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, the nephew of Napoleon I, who seized power in 1851 and established the Second French Empire, which lasted until its defeat in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71, following which France has had three further distinct republics, and several interim administrations.