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Pictures, Maps and Charts: Numbers and A
Galleries -Tanks -Royal Navy Ships -Japanese Ships -US Navy Ships -German Ships - RAF - USAAF -Maps
Numbers and A
2nd Strategic Air Depot
No.12 Squadron SAAF Gallery
No.208 Squadron, RAF
No.256 Squadron, RAF
No.293 Squadron, RAF
No.296 Squadron, RAF
No.322 Squadron, RAF
No.357 Squadron, RAF
No.500 Squadron, RAF
No.576 Squadron, RAF
A-10, 'Warthog', Fairchild
A-20 Havoc, Douglas (22 pictures)
AC-130 Lockheed Spectre Gunship (nine pictures)
Aircraft Carriers (collection)
Armstrong Whitworth Gallery
Avro Lancaster Picture Gallery
Avro Lincoln Picture Gallery
Numbered RAF Squadron/ Unit Pictures
Pictures - Numbers
2pdr QF Mk VIII Pom Pom Guns
37mm Antitank Gun M3A1 on Okinawa
4.5in gun Mark 2, El Alamein, 1942
Naval gunners training on 4.7in guns
4.7in Guns on Destroyer
5.5in Gun of Eighth Army, Sicily 1943
7.5cm PaK40/3 auf Panzerkampfwagen 38(t), Byelgorod
7.5cm PaK40/1 auf Geschützenwagen Lorraine Schlepper (f)
15cm sFH13/1(Sf) auf Geschutzwagen Lorraine Schlepper (f)
15cm sFH13/1(Sf) auf Geschutzwagen Lorraine Schlepper (f)
155mm 'Long Tom' gun of US 9th Army firing at night
Waterproofing 17-pounder anti-tank guns
Australian troops training with 18pdr Mk IV
21cm Nebelwerfer 42 rocket launcher
25-pdr Field Gun, Mount Etna 1943
25-pdr shell casings
British gunner fusing a 25-pounder shell
40mm Bofors Gun, Bougainville
57mm Anti-Tank Gun Model 1943, Soviet Union
US 155mm Gun M1 (Long Tom) on Rendova Island
155mm Gun M1 being towed, Rendova
A-7 Corsair II
Admiral Scheer sunk at Kiel
AEC Armoured Car Mk.II from the left
AEC Armoured Car Mk.II from the right
Front view of AEC Armoured Car Mk.I
A.E.G. C.IV from the left
A.E.G. C.IV with cine-camera
A.E.G. C.IV cockpit seen from above
A.E.G. C.IV being unloaded from train, Taurus Mountains
A.E.G. G.III being serviced
A.E.G. G.IV in front of airship hanger
Captured A.E.G. G.IV at Saint Omer
Captured A.E.G. G.IV at Villacoublay
Front view of A.E.G. G.IV
Rear view of A.E.G. G.IV
A.E.G. G.IV from the right
AGO Ao 192 Kurier left side view
Aichi B7A Ryusei (Shooting Star) 'Grace' in flight
Aichi B7A Ryusei (Shooting Star) 'Grace' under cover
Aichi B7A 'Grace' from the left
Plans of the Aichi D3A1 'Val'
Aichi D3A1 'Val' from the left
Plans of the Aichi D3A2 'Val'
Aichi D3A2 'Val' from below
Aichi D3A2 'Val' from the left
Aichi D3A2 'Val' from the front
Two views of Aichi D3A 'Val' in flight
Aichi E13A 'Jake' at Kiska
Aichi E13A 'Jake' Plans
Wrecked Aichi E13A 'Jake'
Plans of Aichi E13A 'Jake'
Sketch of Aichi E13A 'Jake'
Front view of Aichi E13A 'Jake'
Aichi E13A 'Jake' from the front
Aichi E13A 'Jake' being shot down
Aichi E13A 'Jake' from above left
Aichi E13A 'Jake' from the right
Aichi E13A 'Jake' from the front-right
Aichi E13A 'Jake' from the left
Plans of Aichi E16A 'Paul'
Aichi E16A 'Paul' from the left
Aichi E16A 'Paul' in flight
Aircrew,Canadian, in Training
Aircrew, French, 1939
Airmen,Aero Engine training for Australian
Airspeed Horsa Glider coming in to Land
Airspeed Horsa in Normandy
Airspeed Oxford trainer - the cabin
Alabama, cruise of
Alabama, cruise of, detail showing Atlantic
Alabana, C.S.S., shown sinking
Alabama vs the Kearsarge
Albacore, Fairey, on the carrier deck
Albacore, Fairey, in flight
Albacore, Fairey, in flight
Albacore, Fairey, on Malta
Albacore, Fairey, taking off from carrier
Albacores in the Middle East (1 of 3)
Albacores in the Middle East (2 of 3)
Albacores in the Middle East (3 of 3)
Albatros B.II from the front
Albatros B.II from the right
Shot-down Albatros C.I from the left
Shot-down Albatros C.I from the front
Albatros C.III from the right
Front view of Albatros C.V
Rear view of Albatros C.V
Albatros C.V from the left
Lt Hartmuth Baldamus in Albatros D.II
Albatros D.IIIs of Jasta 4 and Jasta 11
Fuselage of Albatros D.III being towed
Pilot standing by Albatros D.III
Albatros D.V from the left
Fuselage of Albatros D.V being towed
Ludendorff inspects Albatros D.V pilots of Jasta 11
Captured Albatros D.V from the left
Captured Albatros D.V from the rear
Albatros D.Va from the front
Albatros D.Va from the rear
Albatros D.Va from the right
First prototype of Albatros W.4
Albatros jet trainer
Albatros jet trainer
Albatros jet trainer
Albatros jet trainer
Albatros jet trainer
Albatros jet trainer
Albatros jet trainer
Aldis lamp giving take-off signal
Alpen,Overturned German Gun at Alpen
Altenkirchen, second battle of, 19 September 1796
Alma, battle of: Map of the battle
American Colonies before War of Independence
Antonov An-12 "Cub"
Antonov An-26 "Curl"
Appomattox Court House: Lee's surrender
Left view of Arado Ar 68G
Arado Ar 77 left view
Arado Ar 79 left view .
Arado Ar 95W Plans
Rear view of Arado Ar 95W
Arado Ar 96 left view
Arado Ar 96B left view
Arado Ar 196 Plans
Arado Ar 196 on a Catapult
Arado Ar 196 on Gneisenau, 1940
Arado Ar 197 right view
Arado Ar 197 left plan
Arado Ar 197 left view
Arado Ar 197 V3 from the left
Arado Ar 234 - nose and engines
Arado Ar 234 with nose covered
Arado Ar 234 - frontal view
Arado Ar 234 - modern view of nose
Arado Ar 234 - sideview
Sketch of Arado Ar 234
Arado Ar 240 from Above
Arado Ar 240 from the left
Arado Ar 240 from the front
Arashio from the right
Arcola, Napoleon at the Bridge of, 15 November 1796
Arbuthnot,Rear-Admiral Sir Robert K.
Armstrong Siddeley Tiger radial engine
Arizona and New Mexico : Confederate invasion of
Arkansas Post, battle of, 10-11 January 1863
Bypass over railway at Arsbeck, 1945
HMS Argus : converted in 1918
Asia Minor : maps showing the main regions in antiquity
Italian Submarine Asteria surfaced, 17 February 1943
Italian Submarine Asteria sinking, 17 February 1943
Australian Troops shelter under aircraft wing
Austro-Prussian War 1866: Battles of Bohemian Front
Austro-Prussian War 1866: Battles of German Front
Avenger, HMS : during Operation Torch
On June 4, One of California's county - Alameda, retracted 423 deaths as the govt. changed its methodology for counting covid fatalities. This reduced California's total deaths count by 377.
COVID-19 infections are decreasing in United States, with 12,278 new infections reported on average each day. That’s 5% of the peak — the highest daily average reported on January 8.
There have been 33,660,854 infections and 601,093 coronavirus-related deaths reported in the country since the pandemic began.
Daily reported trends
Trends by state
States nearest the peak of their infection curve
Average infections increasing over the last 2 weeks
. decreasing over the last 2 weeks
* Shows rolling 7-day average reported
How United States compares
There is no one perfect statistic to compare the outbreaks different countries have experienced during this pandemic. Looking at a variety of metrics gives you a more complete view of the virus’ toll on each country.
These charts show several different statistics, each with their own strengths and weaknesses, that mark the various ways each country’s outbreak compares in its region and the world.
What it tells you.
Gives the true human toll of the virus on a country.
What it doesn’t
Can minimize the scale of the virus’ impact on smaller countries.
Infections in Northern America
Deaths in Northern America
* Latest average infections reporting
About this data
Reuters is collecting daily COVID-19 infections and deaths data for 240 countries and territories around the world, updated regularly throughout each day.
Every country reports those figures a little differently and, inevitably, misses undiagnosed infections and deaths. With this project we are focusing on the trends within countries as they try to contain the virus’ spread, whether they are approaching or past peak infection rates, or if they are seeing a resurgence of infections or deaths.
About COVID-19 data in United States
On April 26, the state of New Jersey retracted about 9005 cases without providing any explanation for the reduction. On April 27, West Virginia reduced 162 deaths from the dashboard as these death certificates did not officially list COVID-19 as the cause of death. On June 14, Washington retracted 30 deaths from dating back to April 2020, and said were determined not to be related to Covid-19. On June 15, Missouri added 25 deaths, mostly from May, after conducting a weekly sweep of death certificates Missouri started reporting probable cases from March 8 onwards. As of May 17, there were 85,778 probable cases which we evenly distributed across a 70-day period in our tally.
Where United States COVID-19 data comes from
The latest coronavirus news from Reuters
What you need to know about the coronavirus right now
Here's what you need to know about the coronavirus right now:
Where U.S. coronavirus cases are on the rise
The states where the outbreak is growing fastest
New normal: How far is safe enough?
How countries are adapting social distancing rules and what we know about the risks of coronavirus in public places.
Records of the Defense Mapping Agency [DMA]
Established: In the Department of Defense (DOD), from the Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Division, Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), by DOD Directive 5105.40, January 1, 1972, pursuant to a Presidential directive (press release), November 5, 1971, under authority of the National Security Act of 1947 (61 Stat. 495), July 26, 1947, as amended, initiating the consolidation of mapping functions previously dispersed among the military services. Consolidation effected, and DMA became operational, effective July 1, 1972, pursuant to General Order 3, DMA, June 16, 1972, which formally transferred specified DOD components to DMA.
In the Department of the Navy (1830-1947) Department of the Navy, National Military Establishment (1947-49) Department of the Navy, DOD (1949-72):
- Depot of Charts and Instruments (DCI), Board of Navy Commissioners (1830-42)
- DCI, Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography (BuO&H, 1842-54)
- U.S. Naval Observatory and Hydrographical Office (USNOHO), BuO&H (1854-62)
- USNOHO, Bureau of Navigation (BuNav, 1862-66)
- Hydrographic Office (HO), BuNav (1866-89)
- HO, Bureau of Equipment (BuE, 1889-92)
- HO, BuNav (1892-98)
- HO, BuE (1898-1910)
- HO, BuNav (1910-42)
- HO, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OCNO, 1942-62)
- U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (USNOO), OCNO (1962-72)
In the War Department (1892-1947) Department of the Army, National Military Establishment (1947-49) Department of the Army, DOD (1949-72):
- Map Section (MS), Military Information Division, Adjutant General's Office (1893-1903)
- MS, Second Division, War Department General Staff (WDGS, 1903-8)
- MS, Military Information Committee (MIC), Second Section, WDGS (1908-10)
- Military Maps Sub-Committee, Committee on Military Information, War College Division (WCD), WDGS (1910-17)
- Map Room, Military Intelligence Section (MIS), WCD, WDGS (1917-18)
- Map Room, Military Intelligence Branch (MIB), Executive Division, WDGS (1918)
- Graphic Section, Positive Branch (PB), Military Intelligence Division (MID), WDGS (1918)
- Maps and Photographs Section (MI-7), PB, MID, WDGS (1918-19)
- MS (MI-7), Geographic Branch, MID, WDGS (1919-22)
- MS (MI-7), MID, WDGS (1922-26)
- MS, Intelligence Branch (IB), MID, WDGS (1926-28)
- Geographic Section (GS), IB, MID, WDGS (1928-29)
- Geographic Branch, MID, WDGS (1929-38)
- GS, Operations Branch, MID, WDGS (1938-39)
- War Department Map Collection (WDMC), Office of the Chief of Engineers (OCE, 1939-42)
- Map Printing Plant, Engineer School (ES), OCE (1910-17)
- Central Map Reproduction Plant, ES, OCE (1917-19)
- Engineer Reproduction Plant (ERP), OCE, (1919-42)
- Engineer Reproduction Plant (ERP), OCE, Services of Supply (SOS, 1942)
- Army Map Service (AMS), OCE, SOS (1942-43)
- AMS, OCE, Army Service Forces (ASF, 1943-46)
- AMS, OCE (1946-68)
- U.S. Army Topographic Command, OCE (1968-72)
- Intelligence Section (IS), Military Division, OCE (1941)
- Intelligence Branch (IB), Troops Division (TD), OCE (1941-42)
- IB, TD, OCE, SOS (1942)
- Mapping Section, Intelligence Branch (IB), Troops Division (TD), OCE (1941-42)
- Mapping Section, IB, TD, OCE, SOS (1942-43)
- Mapping Section, IB, TD, OCE, ASF (1943)
- Map Production Branch (MPB), Military Intelligence Division (MID), Office of the Assistant Chief of Engineers (OACE, War Planning), OCE, ASF (1943-45)
- MPB, MID, Directorate of Military Operations (DMO), OCE, ASF (1945-46)
- MPB, MID, DMO, OCE (1946-47)
- MPB, Engineer Intelligence Division (EID), OACE (Military Operations), OCE (1947-54)
- Mapping Branch, EID, OACE (Troop Operations), OCE Engineer Research Section (ERS), Technical Services Branch (TSB), Operations and Planning Staff (OPS), AMS, OCE, ASF (1945-46)
- ERS, TSB, OPS, AMS (1946-47)
- Engineer Research Branch, Technical Services Division, AMS, OCE (1948-49)
- Engineer Research Division, AMS, OCE (1949-50)
- Engineer Strategic Intelligence Division, AMS, OCE (1950-60)
- Department of Engineer Intelligence, AMS, OCE (1960-62)
- U.S. Army Area Analysis Intelligence Agency, OCE (1962-63 to Defense Intelligence Agency, DOD, 1963)
- Inter-American Geodetic Survey (IAGS), Caribbean Defense Command (CDC, 1946-47)
- IAGS, CDC, Caribbean Command (1947)
- IAGS, U.S. Army, Caribbean (USARCARIB), Caribbean Command (1948-63)
- IAGS, U.S. Army Forces Southern Command (USAFSC), U.S. Southern Command (1963-72)
In the War Department (1921-47) Department of the Air Force, National Military Establishment (1947-49) Department of the Air Force, DOD (1949-72):
- Airways Section, Training and War Plans Division, Air Service (1921-26)
- Publications Section, Information Division (ID), Office of the Chief of the Air Corps (OCAC)
- Library Section, ID, OCAC
- Map Unit, ID, OCAC
- Section for Dissemination of Information (SDI), ID, OCAC (1937-40)
- SDI, Intelligence Division, OCAC (1940-41)
- Map Section, Intelligence Division, OCAC (1941)
- Map Section, Office of the Assistant for Army Air Traffic Services (OAAATS), OCAC,Army Air Forces (AAF, 1941-42)
- Map-Chart Division (M-CD), Office of the Director of Photography, Maps, and Charts (ODPMC), Directorate of Technical Services (DTS), Headquarters Army Air Forces (HQAAF, 1942-43)
- Aeronautical Chart Division (ACD), ODPMC, DTS, HQAAF (1943)
- ACD, Technical Services Operations Branch, Movement and Operations Division, Office of the Assistant Chief of Air Staff for Operations, Commitments and Requirements (OACAS/OC&R), HQAAF (1943) Aeronautical Chart Service Branch (ACSB), Technical Services Division, OACAS/OC&R, HQAAF (1943-44)
- ACSB, Reconnaissance Branch (RB), Requirements Division (RD), OACAS/OC&R, HQAAF (1944)
- Aeronautical Chart Service Section (ACSS), RB, RD, OACAS/OC&R, HQAAF (1944)
- ACSS, Reconnaissance and Photo Branch, RD, OACAS/OC&R, HQAAF (1944)
- ACSS, Photographic Aviation Branch (PAB), RD, OACAS/OC&R, HQAAF (1944)
- Aeronautical Service Branch (ASB), Photographic Aviation Branch (PAB), RD, OACAS/OC&R, HQAAF (1944)
- Aeronautical Chart Service (ACS), PAB, RD, OACAS/OC&R, HQAAF (1944)
- ACS, RB, RD, OACAS/OC&R, HQAAF (1944)
- 36th AAF Base Unit (36 AAFBU) (ACS), HQAAF (1945) 36 AAFBU, Headquarters, ACS (HQACS), HQAAF (1946)
- 36 AAFBU (HQACS), Air Transport Command (ATC, 1946-47)
- 36 AAFBU (HQACS), 311th Reconnaissance Wing (311 RW), Strategic Air Command (SAC, 1947)
- 36th AF Base Unit (36 AFBU) (HQACS), 311 RW, SAC (1947-48)
- 36 AFBU (HQACS), 311th Air Division (311 AD) (Reconnaissance), SAC (1948)
- HQACS, 311 AD (Reconnaissance), SAC (1948-49)
- HQACS, Second Air Force, SAC (1949-50)
- HQACS, Air Materiel Command (AMC, 1950-51)
- Headquarters and Headquarters Squadron, USAF Aeronautical Chart and Information Service (USAF ACIS), AMC (1951)
- HQ, USAF ACIS, AMC (1951-52)
- HQ, USAF ACIS, Air Photographic and Charting Service (APCS), Military Air Transport Service (MATS, 1952)
- USAF Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, MATS (1952-54)
- Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (ACIC), MATS (1954-58)
- HQ ACIC, Air Photographic and Charting Service, MATS (1958-60)
- ACIC (1960-72)
In the Defense Intelligence Agency, DOD:
- Mapping, Charting, and Geodetic Directorate (1963-71)
- Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Division, Directorate for Plans (1971-72)
Functions: Produces and distributes maps, charts, and geodetic products and services. Provides training in aspects of mapping, charting, and geodesy to DOD agencies and commands.
Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.
Record copies of publications of the Defense Mapping Agency in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
Records of the Army Air Forces, RG 18.
Records of the Hydrographic Office, RG 37.
Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, RG 77.
Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations, RG 342.
456.2 Cartographic Records (General)
History: National Military Establishment (NME), headed by Secretary of Defense, created by the National Security Act of 1947 (61 Stat. 495), July 26, 1947, which divided the War Department into separate Department of the Air Force and Department of the Army and reduced the status of the three military departments (Army, Navy, Air Force) to that of constituent units. NME redesignated DOD by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 578), August 10, 1949.
DCI established in the Department of the Navy under the Board of Navy Commissioners by order of the Secretary of the Navy, December 6, 1830. Initially responsible only for maintaining the navy's stock of nautical charts and navigational instruments, DCI began chart production in 1835 and astronomical observations and other original hydrographic work by 1838. Upon the abolishment of the Board of Navy Commissioners and the establishment of the bureau system by an act of August 31, 1842 (5 Stat. 579), DCI was transferred to BuO&H. Known variously and informally, 1844-54, as the United States Naval Observatory, the Hydrographical Office, the Depot of Charts, the National Observatory, and the Washington Observatory. Formally designated the USNOHO by order of the Secretary of the Navy, December 1854. Transferred, effective August 31, 1862, to BuNav, established as successor (in part) to BuO&H by an act of July 5, 1862 (12 Stat. 510). Separate HO established in BuNav by an act of June 21, 1866 (14 Stat. 69), with responsibility for preparing and publishing maps, charts, and nautical books required in navigation. Transferred to the newly established BuE, June 30, 1889, as part of an exchange of functions between that bureau's predecessor (Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting) and BuNav mandated by the departmental reorganization under General Order 372, Navy Department, June 25, 1889. HO restored to BuNav, 1892 transferred to BuE, 1898 and returned to BuNav, 1910. Transferred to OCNO by EO 9126, April 8, 1942. Transfer made permanent by Reorganization Plan No. III of 1946, effective July 16, 1946. Renamed USNOO by an act of July 10, 1962 (76 Stat. 154). USNOO mapping, charting, and geodetic production and distribution resources consolidated into DMA, July 1, 1972. See 456.1.
(1) War Department Map Collection
A division for the collection and compilation of military intelligence, the Military Information Division, was established in the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) by order of the Secretary of War, April 12, 1889, and confirmed by General Order 23, War Department, March 18, 1892. Responsibility for collecting and maintaining the War Department's strategic map collection was vested in the Section of the Northern Frontier, created in the divisional reorganization ordered by the Secretary of War, November 10, 1893. This unit was variously known as the Northern Frontier Section and Map Section by October 1895 and as the Frontiers and Maps Section by September 1897, with organizational references to a Map Section by April 1894. The Military Information Division was transferred by unnumbered memorandum of the Secretary of War, August 8, 1903, to the newly created WDGS, effective August 18, 1903, where it became the Second Division. Map Section established in Second Division by memorandum of Division Chief, October 20, 1903, pursuant to authority contained in General Order 120, War Department, August 14, 1903. WDGS reorganized pursuant to a memorandum of the Chief of Staff (COS), June 27, 1908. First Division redesignated First Section, and Second and Third Divisions consolidated as Second Section. Functions of old Second Division assigned to MIC by memorandum, Chief, Second Section, June 27, 1908, confirmed by General Order 128, War Department, August 12, 1908, and revisions to paragraph 762, Army Regulations (1908). Map Section established in MIC by order contained in memorandum from the Chief of Staff to the Chief, Second Section, September 28, 1908. First and Second Sections abolished and WDGS reorganized, with functions of MIC assigned to new WCD, pursuant to memorandum, Chief of Staff, September 26, 1910. Old MIC functions delegated to Committee on Military Information by memorandum, Chief, WCD, September 26, 1910, with Military Maps Sub-Committee in place by November 1, 1910. Committee on Military Information abolished and functions assigned to MIS, established by Changes No. 7, WCD Manual, May 3, 1917, implementing COS memorandum, April 28, 1917. WDGS Map Room and Photographic Gallery placed under immediate supervision of Chief, MIS. MIS transferred as the MIB to the new Executive Division in the WDGS reorganization under General Order 14, War Department, February 9, 1918. MIB separated from Executive Division by General Order 80, War Department, August 26, 1918, and designated the MID, with responsibility, assigned to Graphic Section, in Positive Branch (organized August 28, 1918), to "obtain, issue, and reproduce maps." Graphic Section redesignated Maps and Photographs Section with numerical designator MI-7, October 1, 1918. MI-7, Map Section, separated from Positive Branch, April 24, 1919, and assigned, with Monograph Section, MI- 9, to newly created Geographic Branch. MID reorganized, effective December 1, 1922, into eight independent sections, including Map Section, MI-7. In reorganization announced in Memorandum 21, MID, August 21, 1926, Map Section assigned to Intelligence Branch, and numerical designators for MID units dropped. Redesignated as Geographic Section, December 15, 1928. Separated from Intelligence Branch and designated as Geographic Branch by Memorandum 4, MID, April 4, 1929. Redesignated Geographic Section and subordinated to Operations Branch by Memorandum 18, MID, June 6, 1938. WDGS map collection redesignated as War Department Map Collection and it and mapping functions of Geographic Section, Operations Branch, MID, transferred, effective April 1, 1939, to the Office of the Chief of Engineers, by order of the Secretary of War, transmitted by memorandum, Adjutant General to Chief of Engineers, February 9, 1939. Operated, under the supervision of the Engineer Reproduction Plant, as an OCE central office activity, 1939-42. Consolidated with the Engineer Reproduction Plant, 1942, to form Army Map Service. See (2)(a) below.
In a major reorganization of the War Department, effective March 9, 1942, under Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942, implementing EO 9082, February 28, 1942, the OCE was placed under the newly established SOS. Redesignated ASF by General Order 14, March 12, 1943. ASF abolished, effective June 11, 1946, by Circular 138, War Department, May 14, 1946, implementing EO 9722, May 13, 1946.
A map reproduction unit and lithographic school, designated informally as the Map Printing Plant, was established at Washington Barracks as a component of the Engineer School, 1910. Redesignated the Central Map Reproduction Plant by General Order 58, War Department, October 31, 1916, and began operations in 1917. Consolidated with the Central Photographic Laboratory and the Engineer School Press, 1919, to form the Engineer Reproduction Plant, a designated field activity of OCE. ERP made responsible for supervision and maintenance of War Department Map Collection, 1939, with which it merged to form AMS, May 1942. AMS designated as an Engineer field activity, effective July 1, 1942, by General Order 22, OCE, June 19, 1942. AMS redesignated U.S. Army Topographic Command, September 1, 1968. Consolidated into DMA, July 1, 1972. See 456.1.
(2)(b) Engineer Intelligence Division
OCE central office administration of mapping, map production, and map supply initially vested in Intelligence Section, Military Division, OCE. Intelligence Branch established in the newly created Troops Division, OCE, as part of a reorganization under General Order 8, OCE, November 10, 1941, with staff and functions of predecessor IS transferred to Troops Division, effective December 1, 1941, by General Order 9, OCE, November 29, 1941. By December 1, 1942, mapping functions vested in IB Mapping Section. In a reorganization effective December 1, 1943, pursuant to General Order 23, OCE, November 22, 1943, Troops Division abolished, and former IB became MID under OACE (War Planning), with Geodetic Section redesignated Geodetic Branch, and functions of former Mapping Section divided between Topographic Branch and MPB, which had responsibility for administrative oversight of AMS. Geodetic Branch, MID, assigned to AMS by General Order 1, OCE, January 1, 1945. OACE (War Planning) redesignated Directorate of Military Operations, April 30, 1945. MID redesignated EID, and Directorate of Military Operations redesignated OACE (Military Operations), October 15, 1947, by Circular Letter 4389, OCE, October 16, 1947. MPB redesignated Mapping Branch. OACE (Military Operations) redesignated OACE (Troop Operations).
(2)(c) Engineer Strategic Intelligence Division, AMS
Engineer Research Office, North Atlantic Division, Corps of Engineers, transferred to the Technical Services Branch, Operations and Planning Staff, AMS, September 24, 1945, and redesignated Engineer Research Section, with responsibility for collection, collation, and compilation of engineer strategic intelligence data, and their subsequent dissemination in engineer intelligence publications. Redesignated Engineer Research Branch, Technical Services Division, AMS, in reorganization under General Order 13, AMS, May 4, 1948. Upgraded to division status as Engineer Research Division, March 7, 1949. Redesignated Engineer Strategic Intelligence Division, AMS, February 1950. Became Department of Engineer Intelligence, AMS, 1960. Consolidated, effective July 27, 1962, with Engineer area analysis intelligence components in the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors and the Beach Erosion Board, by General Order 15, OCE, July 25, 1962, to form the U.S. Army Area Analysis Intelligence Agency, an Engineer field activity. Transferred, effective March 5, 1963, to Defense Intelligence Agency, DOD, by General Order 4, OCE, March 1, 1963, where it became the Directorate for Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy. Transferred to Directorate of Plans as the Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Division, April 1971. Consolidated into DMA, January 1, 1972. See 456.1.
(3) Inter-American Geodetic Survey
IAGS established within the CDC, War Department, April 20, 1946, by CDC directive, April 15, 1946, to meet army responsibilities under the Inter-American Mapping and Charting Program. Unified Caribbean Command established, effective November 1, 1947, by Department of the Army (DA) classified message WARX 89419, October 30, 1947, pursuant to Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) implementation, by JCS 1259/48, October 30, 1947, of relevant portions of Unified Command Plan, JCS 1259/27, approved by President Harry S. Truman, December 14, 1946. CDC redesignated USARCARIB, effective November 15, 1947, as the army component of the Caribbean Command, by DA unclassified message WCL 37942, November 14, 1947. IAGS attached directly to Caribbean Command by General Order 4, Caribbean Command, March 11, 1948. Returned to USARCARIB, effective July 21, 1948, by General Order 25, Caribbean Command, July 20, 1948. Caribbean Command redesignated U.S. Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM), by General Order 1, Headquarters USSOUTHCOM, June 6, 1963, confirmed by JCS 1259/645, November 20, 1963. USARCARIB redesignated U.S. Army Forces Southern Command (USAFSC), by General Order 2, Headquarters, USSOUTHCOM, June 6, 1963. IAGS consolidated into DMA, July 1, 1972. See 456.1.
Air Force Predecessors
Air Service established in the War Department by EO 3066, March 19, 1919, and confirmed as a combat arm by the Army Reorganization Act (41 Stat. 759), June 4, 1920. Redesignated Air Corps by the Air Corps Act (44 Stat. 780), July 2, 1926. Air Corps placed under newly established Army Air Forces (AAF) by Army Regulation 95-5 (revised), June 20, 1941. Office of the Chief of the Air Corps (OCAC) abolished in AAF reorganization, effective March 9, 1942, under Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942, implementing provisions of EO 9082, February 28, 1942. Air Corps and AAF superseded by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) in the Department of the Air Force pursuant to Transfer Order 1, Office of the Secretary of Defense, September 26, 1947, implementing reorganization provisions of the National Security Act of 1947. (For an administrative history of AAF and its predecessors, see RG 18.)
Airways Section established under Training and War Plans Division, 1921, to acquire and produce air route maps suitable for military use. Abolished in reorganization of Air Corps pursuant to Air Corps Act, 1926. Information Division established by Office Memorandum 19, OCAC, December 14, 1926. Responsibility for procurement and distribution of maps assigned to subordinate Publications Section, effective December 4, 1926, by undated ID internal memorandum, and later to Library Section. Function vested in ID Map Unit, late 1928. Map procurement, preparation of tactical maps, and printing of aeronautical charts assigned to Section for Dissemination of Information, ID, by Office Memorandum 10-10, OCAC, January 2, 1937. Information Division redesignated Intelligence Division by Office Memorandum 10-10, OCAC, November 23, 1940. Map procurement and preparation assigned to newly established Map Section, 1941. Mapping and charting functions transferred to Office of the Assistant for Army Air Traffic Services, by Office Memorandum 10-10D, OCAC, December 24, 1941. Army Air Traffic Services abolished pursuant to reorganization of Army Air Forces, effective March 9, 1942. Map- Chart Division, functional successor to mapping unit in OAAATS, established in the Office of the Director of Photography, Maps, and Charts, Directorate of Technical Services, by Regulation 95- 1, HQAAF, May 19, 1942. M-CD redesignated Aeronautical Chart Division, effective January 30, 1943, by Regulation 95-4, HQAAF, February 15, 1943. ACD subordinated to Technical Services Operations Branch, Movement and Operations Division, OACAS/OC&R, pursuant to AAF reorganization of March 29, 1943. Technical Services Operations Branch redesignated Technical Services Division, OACAS/OC&R, by Headquarters Office Instruction 20-7, HQAAF, May 8, 1943, and ACD redesignated Aeronautical Chart Service Branch (ACSB), Technical Services Division. ACSB transferred from Technical Services Division to Reconnaissance Branch, Requirements Division, OACAS/OC&R, by Headquarters Office Instruction 20-30, HQAAF, January 8, 1944. ACSB redesignated Aeronautical Chart Service Section (ACSS) by Headquarters Office Instruction 20-30, January 24, 1944. Reconnaissance Branch redesignated Reconnaissance and Photo Branch, 1944. Reconnaissance and Photo Branch redesignated Photographic Aviation Branch by Headquarters Office Instruction 20-35, HQAAF, March 31, 1944. ACSS redesignated Aeronautical Service Branch (ASB). ASB redesignated as Aeronautical Chart Service (ACS) and made a field activity of HQAAF, under immediate supervision of Photographic Aviation Branch, Requirements Division, OACAS/OC&R, by Headquarters Office Instruction 20-30A, HQAAF, May 4, 1944. Photographic Aviation Branch redesignated Reconnaissance Branch by Headquarters Office Instruction 20-35, HQAAF, June 27, 1944.
Aeronautical Chart Service organized as 36th AAF Base Unit (ACS), effective January 1, 1945, by AAF Letter 20-62, HQAAF, December 16, 1944. Headquarters, Aeronautical Chart Service established with 36 AAFBU (ACS) as a component, effective March 13, 1946, by War Department Letter AG 322 (8 Mar 46) OB-I-AFCOR-(926(d))-M, March 13, 1946. Redesignated 36 AAFBU (HQACS) and transferred to ATC, effective April 1, 1946, by War Department Letter AG 322 (AFCOR 98l(d)), April 2, 1946. Transferred to Strategic Air Command (SAC), effective May 21, 1947, by General Order 21, ATC, May 26, 1947, with assignment to HQ, 311th Reconnaissance Wing, confirmed by General Order 55, SAC, May 26, 1947. Redesignated 36 AFBU (HQACS), effective September 26, 1947, by Circular 45, Department of the Army, November 14, 1947. 311th Reconnaissance Wing redesignated 311th Air Division (Reconnaissance), effective April 16, 1948, by AGAO-I 322 (31 Mar 48) (AFCOR 705e)-M, April 7, 1948. 36 AFBU (HQACS) redesignated HQACS, effective August 1, 1948, by General Order 37, SAC, July 21, 1948, confirmed by letter, SAC, August 26, 1948, and General Order 8, 311 AD (Reconnaissance), August 3, 1948. Transferred to Second Air Force, SAC, effective November 1, 1949, by General Order 64, SAC, October 19, 1949. Transferred to Air Materiel Command, effective March 1, 1950, by General Order 8, SAC, February 20, 1950. Redesignated Headquarters and Headquarters Squadron, USAF ACIS, effective February 1, 1951, by General Orders 11 and 12, AMC, February 14 and 23, 1951. Redesignated HQ, USAF ACIS, effective May 21, 1951, by General Order 34, AMC, May 11, 1951. Transferred to Military Air Transport Service (MATS), effective May 11, 1952, by AFOMO-A59183, Air Force Directorate of Manpower and Organization, May 9, 1952, confirmed by AFOMO 843g, June 10, 1952 and assigned to Air Photographic and Charting Service, MATS, by General Order 61, MATS, May 10, 1952. Redesignated USAF Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, MATS, effective August 1, 1952, by General Order 111, MATS, August 7, 1952. Redesignated Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (ACIC), effective September 20, 1954, by General Order 158, MATS, September 10, 1954. Redesignated Headquarters, ACIC, and assigned to Air Photographic and Charting Service, effective September 8, 1958, by General Order 130, MATS, September 2, 1958. Relieved from assignment to MATS and accorded separate operating agency status, effective July 1, 1960, by General Order 74, MATS, June 9, 1960. Inactivated, effective June 30, 1972, with mission and functions transferred to DMA, by Special Order G-9, HQ ACIC, June 27, 1972.
Defense Intelligence Agency Predecessors
See under Army Predecessors (2)(c) Engineer Strategic Intelligence Division, AMS.
Maps and Charts: Published record set of DMA topographic maps with periodic indexes (10,000 items) and nautical charts with periodic indexes (14,000 items), covering land areas, military reservations, and coastal and ocean features, mostly in foreign countries, 1972-86.
456.3 Still Pictures (General)
Photographic Prints and Negatives: Black and white Public Affairs Office portraits of DMA and predecessor organizations' commanding officers, 1920-75 (74 images).
Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.
This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.
Historical Topographic Maps - Preserving the Past
In 2009, USGS began the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, and in 2011, complemented them with the release of high-resolution scans of more than 178,000 historical topographic maps of the United States. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for everyday use in government, science, industry, land management planning, and recreation.
Historic maps are snapshots of the nation's physical and cultural features at a particular time. Maps of the same area can show how an area looked before development and provide a detailed view of changes over time. Historical maps are often useful to scientists, historians, environmentalists, genealogists and others researching a particular geographic location or area.
The goal of The National Map’s Historical Topographic Map Collection (HTMC) is to provide a digital repository of USGS 1:250,000 scale and larger maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The National Geospatial Program (NGP) is accurately cataloging and creating metadata to accompany high-resolution, geo-referenced digital files representing the legacy lithographic maps. These maps are either no longer available for distribution in print or are being replaced by the new generation of US Topo maps.
HTMC maps are published in Portable Document Format (PDF) with geospatial extensions (GeoPDF®), patented by TerraGo Technologies. They are available for download free of charge from these applications (see FAQs):
- is our primary application for finding and downloading maps and other data products of the USGS National Geospatial Program. provides the best visual overview of the HTMC. It serves maps in GeoTIFF, JPG, and KMZ versions of the HTMC maps, in addition to the product standard GeoPDF.
- The USGS Store website sells printed maps, and USGS maps and publications that are not included in either the US Topo or HTMC series.
For tutorial information on download and product click here.
The TerraGo Toolbar is available for free download for use with GeoPDF® maps.
Browse Image of 1890 historical topographic map for the Newburyport quadrangle, a digital map in the USGS Historical Topographic Map Collection
A road map is one of the most widely used map types. These maps show major and minor highways and roads (depending on the degree of detail), as well as things like airports, cities, and points of interest such as parks, campgrounds, and monuments. Major highways on a roadmap are generally shown with thick, red lines, while minor roads are lighter in color and drawn with narrower lines.
A road map of California, for example, would depict Interstate highways with a wide red or yellow line, while state highways would be shown in a narrower line in the same color. Depending on the level of detail, the map may also show county roads, major city arteries, and rural routes. These would be depicted in shades of gray or white.
Where to See Some of the World’s Oldest and Most Interesting Maps
Back when mapmaking was still a fledgling profession in the U.S., cartographers had a trick up their sleeves: they would insert fake towns into the maps they drew. Not to screw up travelers trying to navigate, but to catch copycats. Forgery was a big problem, and the practice of copying and profiting off maps created by someone else was common. But if a fake town was spotted in a competitor's map, it was easy to prove copyright infringement.
The first fake town to appear was Agloe, New York, which appeared in the 1930s on a map by the General Drafting Co. It then reappeared on maps produced by Rand McNally when mapmakers for the company found someone had started a business at the exact spot of the fictitious Agloe and named it the Agloe General Store—thereby making the town “real.”
Fake towns are a relatively recent invention in the overall history of maps, though. The oldest known maps began to appear in about 2,300 B.C.E., carved into stone tablets. We’re not sure if any fake towns appear on the maps below, but here are six of the world's oldest or first of their kind that you can go see today.
Imago Mundi – British Museum, London, UK
The Imago Mundi, or Babylonian Map of the World. (Creative Commons)
More commonly known as the Babylonian Map of the World, the Imago Mundi is considered the oldest surviving world map. It is currently on display at the British Museum in London. It dates back to between 700 and 500 BC and was found in a town called Sippar in Iraq. The carved map depicts Babylon in the center nearby are places like Assyria and Elam, all surrounded by a “Salt Sea” forming a ring around the cities. Outside the ring, eight islands or regions are carved into the tablet. The map is accompanied by a cuneiform text describing Babylonian mythology in the regions depicted on the stone.
The Cantino Planisphere – Galleria Estense, Italy
The Cantino Planisphere. (Creative Commons)
This 1502 map, created by an unknown Portuguese mapmaker in Lisbon, was once the subject of international espionage. It’s named after Alberto Cantino, an Italian who was an undercover spy for the Duke of Ferrara. Though no one’s entirely sure exactly how Cantino acquired the map, we do know from historical records that he paid 12 gold ducats for it—a pretty substantial amount back then. But the important thing about this map is not that it was technically stolen goods. Rather, it included several firsts for maps at the time: it was the first in history to include the Arctic Circle, the equator, the tropics, and the border between Portuguese and Spanish territories. It also has the first named depiction of the Antilles and potentially the first image of Florida’s lower coastline. The Planisphere was stolen again in the mid-1800s and later found again now it’s on display in the Galleria Estense in Italy.
Mappamundi – American Geographical Society Library, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Leardo's Mappamundi. (Creative Commons)
This is the oldest world map in the collection at the American Geographical Society Library, a facility that has more than 1.3 million pieces in the archive. It was drawn in 1452 as one of only three world maps Venetian cartographer Giovanni Leardo drew and signed. Jerusalem is at the center of the map, which depicts the European view of the world during the Middle Ages. It was the first map of its time to show clearly defined shorelines of the Mediterranean and western Europe. The Mappamundi could also be used as a sort of calendar. Ten circles showing the dates of Easter for a 95-year period, from April 1, 1453, to April 10, 1547, surround the map itself. The rings also show moon phases, the months, zodiac signs, festivals, certain Sundays throughout the time period, and day length. The map is available upon request, if it's not part of a traveling exhibition at the time.
Tabula Peutingeriana – Austrian National Library, Vienna, Austria
Tabula Peutingeriana. (Creative Commons)
The version of this map on display at the Austrian National Library is not actually the original, which was created in the 4th or 5th century—but it’s a close second, a replica created in the 13th century by a monk. Essentially, this is a roadmap (the earliest example of what would evolve into the modern roadmap) of the ancient Roman Empire, stretching out 22 feet wide and tracking all the public roads from the Atlantic Ocean to modern-day Sri Lanka. Each road is marked at intervals that represent a day’s travel, which can vary from 30 to 67 miles, depending on the road. The paths lead through more than 550 cities and 3,500 named places and geographical landmarks. For travel distances, this map is great but if someone is looking for a real geographical representation of ancient Rome, look elsewhere, because the top and bottom are smushed down to fit onto the lengthy chart.
Turin Papyrus Map – Museo Egizio, Turin, Italy
The Turin Papyrus Map. (Creative Commons)
This may be one of the earliest geographical maps in the world, designed to lead an expedition through part of ancient Egypt. Amennakhte (also spelled Amennakht), a well-known scribe at the time, drew the map around 1150 BC for a quarry expedition to Wadi Hammamat ordered by King Ramses IV. The men on the trip were expected to bring back blocks of stone for statue carvings of the gods and famous Egyptians at the time. The Turin papyrus has been studied since it was discovered in the early 1800s in a private tomb near modern-day Luxor. When found, the map was broken into three separate pieces of papyrus now it survives in fragments pieced together and displayed as one sheaf in the Museo Egizio.
Tabula Rogeriana – University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Tabula Rogeriana. (Creative Commons)
When cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi created this map in 1154 for King Roger II of Sicily, he was the first to break the known world down to a more granular level with 70 smaller regional maps dictated by Ptolemy’s seven climate zones, and 10 different geographical sections. Every section has not only the map, but also a description of the land and the indigenous people there. And it was done well—so well, in fact, that it was the map of record for about 300 years for anyone looking to see a span from Africa to Scandinavia and China to Spain. The map is currently in the University of Oxford’s collection, and though it’s a copy of the original, it’s not that much newer this one was made around 1300.
A chart can take a large variety of forms, however there are common features that provide the chart with its ability to extract meaning from data.
Typically the data in a chart is represented graphically, since humans are generally able to infer meaning from pictures more quickly than from text. Text is generally used only to annotate the data.
One of the most important uses of text in a graph is the title. A graph's title usually appears above the main graphic and provides a succinct description of what the data in the graph refers to.
Dimensions in the data are often displayed on axes. If a horizontal and a vertical axis are used, they are usually referred to as the x-axis and y-axis respectively. Each axis will have a scale, denoted by periodic graduations and usually accompanied by numerical or categorical indications. Each axis will typically also have a label displayed outside or beside it, briefly describing the dimension represented. If the scale is numerical, the label will often be suffixed with the unit of that scale in parentheses. For example, "Distance traveled (m)" is a typical x-axis label and would mean that the distance traveled, in units of meters, is related to the horizontal position of the data within the chart.
Within the graph a grid of lines may appear to aid in the visual alignment of data. The grid can be enhanced by visually emphasizing the lines at regular or significant graduations. The emphasized lines are then called major grid lines and the remainder are minor grid lines.
The data of a chart can appear in all manner of formats, and may include individual textual labels describing the datum associated with the indicated position in the chart. The data may appear as dots or shapes, connected or unconnected, and in any combination of colors and patterns. Inferences or points of interest can be overlaid directly on the graph to further aid information extraction.
When the data appearing in a chart contains multiple variables, the chart may include a legend (also known as a key). A legend contains a list of the variables appearing in the chart and an example of their appearance. This information allows the data from each variable to be identified in the chart.
Public domain maps: resources list
What&rsquos there: Customizable, printable, and download reference (geographic boundaries) and thematic (statistical data) maps based on the 2000 population census (the most recent decennial census) and other surveys. You can download maps and legends as GIFs or PDFs. You can also download map data in Microsoft Excel (.xls) format or in a comma-delimited text file that can be imported into many desktop applications. The site includes a nice tutorial on creating and using maps.
Using the maps: With rare exceptions, US Census Bureau materials are entirely in the public domain. (Items that include copyrighted material indicate what is copyrighted.) The Census Bureau does ask that you cite it as the source of any material you republish, however.
What&rsquos there: Topographic maps of 12 states in the western US (Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming). Maps may be ordered online (prices are reasonable). The site states that you may also download PDF versions of the maps, but I wasn't able to. Another way to get maps is to order them directly from the various BLM state offices (links to them are at the top of the FAQ page on the main BLM site).
Using the maps: Maps prepared by the Bureau of Land Management, a US federal agency, are in the public domain. Appropriate credit is requested.
Map of Bhutan, 2005. (The World Factbook)
What&rsquos there: World maps, individual country maps, and regional maps prepared by the US Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US government officials. The Factbook is currently updated every two weeks. Reference maps are available in JPG and PDF format, and the individual country maps are available in GIF format.
Using the maps: The Factbook is in the public domain, making the maps in it public domain maps. They may be copied freely, but you&rsquore asked to cite The World Factbook as the source. Note, too, that the official seal of the CIA may not be copied without permission. Misuse of the official seal of the CIA could result in civil and criminal penalties . so don&rsquot do it.
What&rsquos there: Directory of map libraries and organizations in the US, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Lots of links to explore here. When I last checked, though, some of the links resulted in 404 (page not found) errors . but there&rsquos still a ton of info here.
Using the maps: Your use of any maps you find through this directory will depend on restrictions, if any, and/or license terms imposed by the organizations that own the originals. (Sorry — I don&rsquot have time to read the terms and conditions of every site in a directory. )
Map of Napa County, 1878. Geography & Map Division,
Library of Congress.
What&rsquos there: With one of the largest and most comprehensive map collections in the world, the Library of Congress is a great source of public domain maps. While the online map collections are a relatively small part of the collection, the site also offers helpful guides and information on searching . so you can find maps that haven&rsquot yet been digitized, too. You may also order copies of maps.
Using the maps: The map images you&rsquoll find on the site are, in general, in the public domain. But note: It&rsquos not true that all maps held by the Geography & Map Division are in the public domain. So pay attention to the rights statement in any given map record. Also note that if you do publish copies of public domain maps in these collections, you&rsquore asked to provide a credit line stating that the material was reproduced from an original in the collections of the Geography & Map Division, Library of Congress.
What&rsquos there: Looking for old (non-current) maps? This directory site offers more than 100 pages relating to the history of cartography, including (according to the home page) 4,500 annotated links and a list of over 1,200 image sites arranged by geographical region. If you poke around this site, you&rsquoll definitely find sources of public domain maps.
Using the maps: Your use of any maps you may find though this site will depend on where you find them and what (if any) restrictions have been placed on copies.
What&rsquos there: One of the world&rsquos largest online databases of public domain topographic maps and aerial imagery, the site (which is a collaboration between Microsoft Research, Bing Maps, and the USGS) contains thousands of digital copies of USGS maps and aerial photographs of the United States. You view maps by selecting a location on a map or entering a place name. You may also create custom maps and order prints (paper, waterproof, or laminated paper).
Note that if you want to order customized maps, you end up on a third-party site. That site appears to claim copyright in its web site as a compilation, and also in its software. Fine, but it can&rsquot claim copyright in the USGS maps. There&rsquos no mention of that, however, and the wording of their copyright clause is a bit misleading. Even so . USGS maps are in the public domain.
What&rsquos there: Historic maps showing campaigns of major military conflicts including the American Revolution, the Civil War, and World War II (and more). Some of the maps are manuscripts that were drawn on the field of battle. The maps show troop movements, defensive structures and groundworks, roads to and from sites of military engagements, campsites, and local buildings, topography and vegetation. You may order reproductions, too.
Using the maps: Most of the maps here are in the public domain. But you should check the catalog records that accompany each map for information regarding date of publication and source. A few maps have permission from the copyright holders (as noted in their records). If you republish public domain maps from this collection, the requested credit line is: Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.
Battle of Bull Run, August 29th and 30th, 1862. (ARC ID: 305590)
What&rsquos there: The holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) include more than 2 million maps, many (most?) of which are in the public domain. You can view a sample of the NARA&rsquos map holdings by using the Archival Research Catalog (ARC). Not all the ARC records are linked to digital copies, but it&rsquos easy to find the ones that are by using the basic search function.
For an overview of the collection, see the Guide to Cartographic Records in the National Archives (not a free publication the cost is $25.00.) Also see Special List No. 29: List of Selected Maps and State Territories, which is available online. You can find instructions on how to order map reproductions here.
Using the maps: NARA&rsquos cartographic holdings include maps produced by various federal departments and agencies, and such works are in the public domain in the US. However, some maps may be copyrighted or subject to donor restrictions. Each map you find will have publication information and use restriction info in its record, so be sure to check.
What&rsquos there: Online atlas with customizable, printable maps of every state. You may also print preformatted maps on various topics (formats are GIF and PDF) and purchase wall maps. And if you have desktop mapping or GIS software, you can also download GIS files and make your own maps.
Using the maps: The geographic information is contributed by a number of federal agencies and each issue is produced by staff at the US Geological Survey (USGS), making the National Atlas a public domain work.
Note, though, that National Atlas of the United States® and The National Atlas of the United States of America® are registered trademarks of the Department of the Interior. The site&rsquos legal notice also warns you that some USGS pages contain material that is copyrighted by others (and used by the USGS with permission) and that there may be some non-USGS data, products, and information linked, or referred to, from the site that is protected under US and foreign copyright laws. (You&rsquod need permission to use these materials.) So . what to do? Just keep your eyes open for any copyright notices or other restrictions.
What&rsquos there: Interactive US map viewer that allows you to customize the view and display layers of information (for example, boundaries, elevation, or geographic names). You may also print maps in PDF, or extract vector (line-based) and raster (image-based) data layers, which are downloadable as ZIP-archived data bundles of shapefiles.
Using the maps: The maps are in the public domain. The data comes from federal agencies — the USGS, US Forest Service, US Fish & Wildlife Service, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (NASA) — and the Montana Natural Resource Information System (which places no use restrictions on the data, except that state law prohibits your use of certain data as a mailing list).
Map of Isle au Haut, Acadia National Park, Maine.
What&rsquos there: Digital versions of the maps found in the official brochures provided to National Park visitors. Maps are available in three formats: Adobe PDF (for browser viewing and printing), Adobe Illustrator (for professional print production), and JPEG shaded relief (topography maps for professional print production). The site includes production tips. Maps published by the National Park Service may also be obtained through individual parks. Contact information for all parks is here — click through to any park(s) you&rsquore interested in and search for maps on the park&rsquos home page.
Using the maps: All the maps on this site are in the public domain. Just make sure not to use the National Park Service seal or claim National Park Service endorsement of your use of downloaded maps. Note: You can also find find maps for sale at the National Parks Store, but a number of them are National Geographic maps, which are protected by copyright.
What&rsquos there: Online gallery including US historical maps, maps of New York, English maps, charts, atlases and gazetteers . and more. (There are more than 2,000 gallery items in the Map Division.)
Using the maps: Personal, research, and study uses are free. However, even though most (if not all) of the maps are in the public domain, the NYPL site states that as the physical rights holder of this material . the Library charges a usage fee if images are to be used in any nonprofit or commercial publication, broadcast, web site, exhibition, promotional material, etc. The fee schedule is here and the library's permissions terms and conditions are here.
What&rsquos there: This library has scanned and put online 5,715 maps (a small part of its collection), including world maps, U.S. maps, polar regions and oceans . even bird flu maps. There&rsquos a section of historical US maps, too, that includes military history maps. Also maps of national historic sites and memorials. The web site also provides links to tons of maps and map-related sites. You may also submit map questions, and there are research links. The site is a must if you&rsquore seriously researching in this area.
Using the maps: Most of the maps are public domain maps. You may download them and use them as you wish (there are JPEGs and GIFs). The maps that are copyrighted are clearly marked as such. Note: A few maps include the official seal of a US government agency. You may not use these seals in a manner that would give the impression that your use is approved, endorsed, or authorized by the agency. US Census Bureau Map Products
What&rsquos there: Links to various reference maps and thematic maps. Reference maps include a variety of map types that show the boundaries and names of geographic areas for which the Census Bureau tabulates statistical data. Thematic maps are data maps of a specific subject or for a specific purpose. It appears that they offer GIFs and PDFs (large files) . and you can also order printed copies by calling the Census Bureau.
Using the maps: The data used to create the maps comes from the Census Bureau, an agency of the US government, and is in the public domain. Therefore any maps you download from this site are in the public domain and you&rsquore free to use them as you choose. The Census Bureau does ask that you cite it as the source of any material you republish, however.
What&rsquos there: You can order forest visitor maps and wilderness (topographic) maps for reasonable prices, but you must print and mail in the order form. There&rsquos not too much in the way of online maps, although you can access a list of forests by state, from which you can also purchase maps. Some maps are also downloadable (depends on the state).
Using the maps: Since Forest Service maps are works of the US government, they&rsquore in the public domain (as long as they were produced by government employees). The closest acknowledgement I could find on the web site was this: &ldquoInformation presented on the Forest Service website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credits is requested.&rdquo
What&rsquos there: Home page of the USGS. This is a great place to start your search for public domain maps. Lots of information, and links to everything you need to help you find what you&rsquore looking for. Click the Maps, Imagery & Publications link and you can easily get to the USGS store.
Using the maps: All USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the US public domain. Note, though, that some of the images, graphics, and photographs on the USGS site were not produced by the USGS and are, therefore, protected by copyright. These materials are generally marked as being copyrighted. So (common sense here) don&rsquot use those materials without permission.
If you use USGS content, they ask that proper credit be given. For example: (Map title) courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.
What&rsquos there: Web site of the largest earth sciences library in the world, which holds over 450,000 maps. Four libraries make up the USGS Library system — they&rsquore located in Reston, VA, Denver, CO, Flagstaff, AZ, and Menlo Park, CA. (Just in case you happen to live near one of them. You can also get to their web sites via the USGS Library home page.) The library&rsquos online catalog contains over 325,000 records for materials that have been added to the library since 1975. All USGS publications produced since 1879 are in this catalog . so you&rsquore certain to find sources of public domain maps here.
Using the maps: All USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the US public domain. Any images, graphics, and photographs on the USGS site that were not produced by the USGS are protected by copyright, however. These materials are generally marked as being copyrighted. Don&rsquot use those materials without permission.
If you use USGS content, they ask that proper credit be given. For example: (Map title) courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.
What&rsquos there: USGS products for sale. You may browse the map products by category (for example, limited edition maps), type (map series), or by coverage area. You may also do a geographic search. Searching brings up a map&rsquos catalog record (no image) you may then order the map online. Note: Currently only customers in the United States may submit orders electronically. Those outside the US can the product catalog to identify products and download a PDF order form.
Using the maps: All USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the US public domain. Note, though, that not all information, illustrations, or photographs on the USGS site are public domain. Some images, graphics, and photographs on the USGS site are used by the USGS with permission from the copyright holder (and these things are generally marked as being copyrighted). Don&rsquot use any copyrighted materials without permission.
If you find maps through one of the private dealers . remember, because USGS works are in the public domain, there are no copyright restrictions on them. Business partners may repackage or enhance the works if they wish . but they may not claim copyright in the USGS works.
Last, if you use USGS content, they ask that proper credit be given. For example: (Map title) courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.
What&rsquos there: Yale&rsquos map collection is one of the largest university collections in the US, with more than 200,000 map sheets, 3,000 atlases, and 900 reference books. The map collection web site is under reconstruction — the library is currently digitizing some of the collection and making it available online. The format is JPEG 2000. You&rsquoll probably need to download a plugin to view the maps in your browser.
Using the maps: According to Yale Library&rsquos copyright statement, you may use content from the site without permission (except for material in which Yale University Library does not hold the copyright) if you acknowledge Yale University Library in your copy and the copy is used for educational or not-for-profit purposes.
However, the copyright page also includes an acknowledgment that [a]ny public domain material embedded in this site may, of course, be used without permission. While an exact digital copy of a public domain map (that is, one that aims to reproduce the map as accurately as possible) arguably does not pass the “minimally creative” test to qualify for its own copyright, Yale University might have a different opinion. Keep that in mind if your intended use is anything but educational and not-for-profit.
Related Articles on Mapmaking:
The UK Mail Online has a list compiled by Peter Barber who is the Head of Map Collections at the British Library on the some of the greatest maps that have affected the world. Making list is the mapping application Google Earth and its ability to allow users to overlay their geographic information of choice. Barber cautions,
Almost for the first time, the ability to create an accurate map has been placed in the hands of everyone, and it has transformed the way we view the world. But it comes at a price.
There are few, if any, agreed standards about what should be included, and the less populated and ‘less important’ regions get ignored.
The list is on the Eurocentric side with most on the list having been created by Europeans.
PICTURES, MAPS AND CHARTS - History
What is a map?
A map is a graphical representation drawn to scale of natural and artificial features (objects) on the Earth's surface. Some of these features such as roads, buildings or rivers, you would be able to see from a hill top or aeroplane. A map is a portrayal of the real world. Other features such as names of places, boundaries or heights are added to the map because of the importance that they have for the map user. A map can tell us about things that are happening around us, close by and far away. It gives us this information without having to necessarily be at that place.
Position (location): A map gives the location or position of places or features. The positions are usually given by the co-ordinates of the place, either as the cartesian co-ordinates (x, y) in metres or as geographical co-ordinates (latitude and longitude) in degrees, minutes and seconds. The co-ordinates can be measured using the co-ordinate grid shown at set intervals along the borders of the map. The map user can, for example, find out that the position of Cape Town is 33°56' South latitude, 18°25' East longitude.
Spatial relationships: A map gives us the spatial relationship between features. For example: What province is the neighbour of another province? Which side of the road is the river on? Is there a dam on the farm? Where is the nearest railway station?
Distance, Direction, Area: We can determine a lot of information from a map such as distances, directions and areas. We can measure the distance from Johannesburg to Durban, determine that Pretoria is to the north of Johannesburg, or calculate the size of the Gauteng province. In determining distances and areas the scale of the map has to be taken into consideration. Directions are based on true north, but if you are using a magnetic compass then it must be remembered that the compass needle points to magnetic north, which is different from true north. The difference between magnetic north and true north is called magnetic declination.
Different types of maps: Being a representation of the real world on a limited size of paper means that a map is restricted as to what can be shown. The cartographer has to select what to show and what to leave off. The cartographer is guided by what the main purpose of the map is, such as a road map, a topographical map or a thematic map. A road map emphasises the roads and towns but little else, while a topographic map, also called a general map, shows as much of the landscape, elevations, roads, towns etc. as possible. A thematic map is designed to depict a specific theme such as the population of various magisterial districts, the occurrence of crime in different districts, or annual rainfall.
What can I find on a map?
A topographical map shows natural and human made features on the Earth's surface and added to this are names and boundaries of importance. The features or objects are represented on the map as symbols in different colours as point symbols, lines and areas. The cartographer uses different colours and symbols for each type of object in a way that will make it easy for the map user to identify. Below are examples of what can be found on a 1:50 000 topographical map with the standard symbols: Road:
|National freeway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|National route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Arterial route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Main road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Secondary road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Railway (showing a station) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|River: Perennial (has water all year) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Non perennial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Dam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Pan: Perennial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Non perennial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Dry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Canal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Powerline (major lines only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Spot height (elevation at a point) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Trigonometrical Beacon (with beacon number) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Built up area (High and Low density) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|(Residential, commercial and industrial) Building (of significance or isolated) . . . . . . . . . .|
|Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Cultivated Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Row of trees (where of significance) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Wind pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Communication tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Eroded area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Sandy area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Boundary: International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Provincial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Cadastral farm (original farm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
|Protected Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
Names of towns, rivers, mountains, major dams and other geographical areas
Positioning on the Earth’s surface
In order to determine where we are on the Earth's surface, we first need to know the size and shape of the Earth. To make things easier for us we assume that the Earth approximates a smooth mathematical surface. This surface is called a reference ellipsoid (a sphere which is flattened at the poles). Up until December 1998, the Modified Clarke 1880 reference ellipsoid was used in South Africa. Since January 1999 the WGS84 reference ellipsoid based on the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory as the Datum point is used to define positions in South Africa. This co-ordinate system is known as “Hartebeesthoek 94”. The WGS84 ellipsoid is the reference figure used for Global Positioning System (GPS). To assist surveyors and others in their work, a network of approximately 60 000 permanently marked and accurately surveyed trigonometrical beacons and town survey marks has been established throughout the country, from which the position and height of any other point can be determined. This network is termed a passive control network since, besides marking an accurately surveyed point, the beacons do nothing to contribute to refining or monitoring its position. The all familiar trigonometrical beacons with their white pillars and black vanes which can be seen on mountain tops and on top of high buildings and structures represent this passive network. The increased use of satellite based positioning techniques, mainly GPS, has prompted this Organisation to install a network of active GPS base stations, known as TrigNet, which operate continuously in all weather conditions and at all times of the day. Instead of using the passive network, surveyors can use GPS receivers and data from the active TrigNet network to determine their position on the Earth's surface to within a few centimetres depending on the type of equipment used, the duration of observation, the suitability of the site etc. Positions derived from these networks are not only to make maps but also for the survey of civil engineering projects, such as the building of roads and water pipelines, land parcels for registration purposes as well as for numerous scientific applications.
Global Positioning System (GPS). To assist surveyors and others in their work, a network of approximately 60 000 permanently marked and accurately surveyed trigonometrical beacons and town survey marks has been established throughout the country, from which the position and height of any other point can be determined. This network is termed a passive control network since, besides marking an accurately surveyed point, the beacons do nothing to contribute to refining or monitoring its position. The all familiar trigonometrical beacons with their white pillars and black vanes which can be seen on mountain tops and on top of high buildings and structures represent this passive network. The increased use of satellite based positioning techniques, mainly GPS, has prompted this Organisation to install a network of active GPS base stations, known as TrigNet, which operate continuously in all weather conditions and at all times of the day. Instead of using the passive network, surveyors can use GPS receivers and data from the active TrigNet network to determine their position on the Earth's surface to within a few centimetres depending on the type of equipment used, the duration of observation, the suitability of the site etc. Positions derived from these networks are not only to make maps but also for the survey of civil engineering projects, such as the building of roads and water pipelines, land parcels for registration purposes as well as for numerous scientific applications.
The scale of a map describes the relationship between a distance or size on the ground. Amap has a scale because it is not possible to show the whole area at its true size. Ascale is normally given as a figure consisting of two parts, such as 1:50 000, the first part is a 1 and the second part 50 000. This means that 1 unit of measure on the map represents (equals) 50 000 units of measure on the ground -1cm on the map represents (equals) 50 000cm on the ground. Scale can also be given on the map as a scale bar, which helps the user to measure distances from the map. Different maps have different scales. A map with a scale of 1:50 000 is said to be a larger scale map than a map with a scale of 1:250 000. This is because an object on the ground is shown bigger on a 1:50 000 scale map than on a 1:250 000 scale map. A 1:1million scale map would be an even smaller scale map. However, the smaller the scale of the map the bigger the area that is covered on the map.
The effect of the different scales are shown here :
From reality to Map
The cartographer has the task of bringing the real world to the map user. This is no easy task as the space available on the map is limited and the real world must be represented by symbols (points, lines and area fills). The process of making the map involves collecting data and making measurements (usually from aerial photographs) of objects in the real world: This information is then translated into understandable symbols and names and other relevant information is added which the map user can interpret to acquire knowledge about the real world. The Earth is round while the map is flat and so the cartographer has to project the round surface of the Earth onto the flat surface of the map. This process is known as a map projection. There are different properties of preserving true shape, area or distance. For a map to be useful it must be a good representation of the real world. This means that as things change, such as a new road or dam or houses, the map must be revised to show these changes. It is important therefore that maps show the date at which the information is valid. It is also these changes that make it necessary for maps to be updated at intervals. The updated map is shown as a new edition of the map with a new date.
Digital topographic information
Digital topographic information has been captured from the 1:500 000 and 1:50 000 map series. This information has been topologically structured and stored as features. The major features (such as all roads, railways, built-up areas, rivers and contours) of the entire 1:50 000 national series (1913 sheets) is available in a digital format. This information has been prepared primarily for use in geographic information systems (GIS) but can also be used in computer-aided drawing (CAD) systems (use in CAD leads to loss of attribute data). The applications to which the digital topographic information can be put are wide, similar to uses of a map, with the difference that users can utilise the power of the computer application software that they are using to do spatial analysis. This valuable national asset will continually be photogrammetrically improved, and updated to satisfy the nation's need for such information. This data is used by many organisations as well as individuals, both public and private, for planning, engineering, social and scientific purposes.
A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a collection of elevations (heights) in a digital form, giving the representation of the surface of the Earth. The DEM can be used to determine the height of a point or place, the terrain profile between two points, the visibility from a point.
The DEM is determined from photogrammetric (aerial photographs) measurements and computed in a regular grid of elevation points. Three levels of DEMs are available: the 400 DEM grid spacing with an absolute accuracy of ± 10m, supplemented with a grid spacing of 200m in the metropolitan and more mountainous areas. The second is a 50m DEM with a height accuracy of ± 2.5m, which has a grid spacing of 50m X 50m and is available in the metropolitan areas and growth areas. Both of these DEMs are available in the NES format and are referenced to the Modified Clarke 1880 ellipsoid. The above DEM information is supplied as a raster (matrix) of elevations with a limit on the east-west extent. Thirdly, the 25m DEM with a height accuracy of ± 2,5m, has a grid spacing of 25m X 25m and is referenced to WGS84 (Hartebeesthoek94), the format isASCII and is structured in a saw tooth formation or method yxz. The 25m DEM is available in most metropolitan areas and growth areas. As a result of the high demand for this data, the Chief Directorate has an ongoing programme to increase the 25 m DEM coverage. Digital maps as raster images are produced as digital copies of the printed maps at scales 1:50 000, 1:250 000 and other scales. The raster images are produced as a by-product from the computer-assisted cartographic system. These map images are most useful as 'backdrops' in various applications such as navigation systems, decision-support systems and value-added applications using the map as a reference. Digital orthophoto images are obtained by digitally rectifying aerial photographs. The digital orthophoto is a photographic image of the terrain, but more importantly it is true to scale and therefore accurate distances and areas can be measured. These images are popular as 'backdrops' similar to the digital map, but have the advantage over the digital map in that it is a real image of the terrain and not one interpreted by the cartographer. Both the digital map and digital orthophoto image are available on CD-ROM in TIF format.
How to obtain maps, aerial photographs and other services
To assist users in identifying the products required, index maps indicating the available maps and latest aerial photography are printed annually. These index maps are available free of charge and are obtainable from National Geo-spatial Information in Mowbray or from the office of the Surveyors-General and other outlets.
How do I identify the map to order?
Each map covers a different area of the country and it is important to order the correct map. Each map can be identified by its unique number (e.g. 2830CB) and scale, or by name (E.g. 3318 Cape Town 1:250 000).
- Each Degree Square is designated by a four figure number made up of the values of the Latitude and Longitude at its NW corner.
- Each Degree Square is divided into sixteen 1: 50 000 sheets, each 15’ x 15’. These are lettered ABCD as indicated.
- In the sketch the hatched area indicates the coverage of the sheet 2830CB of the 1: 50 000 series.
How to identify the aerial photograph to order?
Each aerial photograph covers a different area at a particular date. It is therefore possible to have more than one aerial photograph covering the same place, each taken at different times e.g. in 1958 and again in 1975 and again in 1993. Each aerial photograph is uniquely identified by its Job number, Strip number and Photo number. These three numbers are used in ordering the correct aerial photograph. The numbers can be obtained from the flight plan for the aerial photography job (Job number) or by visiting one of the offices where the aerial photographs are available for
Maps can be purchased either directly, by mail order or via our Internet site from the
National Geo-spatial Information
By mail : National Geo-spatial Information
Orthophoto maps can be purchased from most of the map outlets. Aerial photographs and enlargements of aerial photographs can be purchased only from the
National Geo-spatial Information in Mowbray, but orders can be placed at the Surveyor-General in Pretoria, Pietermaritzburg and Bloemfontein.
Co-ordinates, heights and plans of trigonometrical beacons, town survey marks and bench marks may be obtained from the Chief Directorate: National Geo-spatial Information in Mowbray, or downloaded from the website.
Digital products are available by order from National Geo-spatial Information in Mowbray. Other services are available by arrangement directly with National Geo-spatial Information in Mowbray.
The prices for the maps, aerial photographs and other services are available on request, or on the Internet homepage.
Copyright : All the products of National Geo-spatial Information are State copyright.
No products can be copied or reproduced by any means, including digital, without prior permission.
Workshops: Developing Map Use Skills
The MapAware workshop guides and encourages map users and geography educators to develop map reading skills and spatial awareness. The Land Information for Land Reform workshop capacitates personnel of the Department Rural Development and Land Reform to spatially identify and manage the delivery of land settlement of claims using maps, aerial photography, cadastral and title deed information.
Customised workshops are designed around specific user needs and may be given at a basic map reading level or an in-depth look at spatial information.