Grover Cleveland

Grover Cleveland


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Grover Cleveland (1837-1908), who served as the 22nd and 24th U.S. He is the only president to date who served two nonconsecutive terms, and also the only Democratic president to win election during the period of Republican domination of the White House that stretched from Abraham Lincoln’s (1809-65) election in 1860 to the end of William Howard Taft’s (1857-1930) term in 1913. Cleveland worked as a lawyer and then served as mayor of Buffalo, New York, and governor of New York state before assuming the presidency in 1885. His record in the Oval Office was mixed. Not regarded as an original thinker, Cleveland considered himself a watchdog over Congress rather than an initiator. In his second term, he angered many of his original supporters and seemed overwhelmed by the Panic of 1893 and the depression that followed. He declined to run for a third term.

Early Career

Stephen Grover Cleveland was born in Caldwell, New Jersey, on March 18, 1837. He was the fifth of nine children of Richard Falley Cleveland (1804-53), a Presbyterian minister, and Anne Neal Cleveland (1806-82). In 1841, the family moved to upstate New York, where Cleveland’s father served several congregations before his death in 1853.

Cleveland left school following his father’s death and started working in order to help support his family. Unable to afford a college education, he worked as a teacher in a school for the blind in New York City and then as a clerk in a law firm in Buffalo, New York. After clerking for several years, Cleveland passed the state bar examination in 1859. He started his own law firm in 1862. Cleveland did not fight in the American Civil War (1861-65); when the Conscription Act was passed in 1863, he paid a Polish immigrant to serve in his place.

Sheriff, Mayor and Governor

Cleveland’s first political office was sheriff of Erie County, New York, a position he assumed in 1871. During his two-year term, he carried out the death sentence (by hanging) of three convicted murderers. In 1873, he returned to his law practice. He was persuaded to run for mayor of Buffalo in 1881 as a reformer of a corrupt city government. He won the election and took office in 1882. His reputation as an opponent of machine politics grew so rapidly that he was asked to run as the Democratic candidate for governor of New York.

Cleveland became governor in January 1883. He was so opposed to unnecessary government spending that he vetoed eight bills sent up by the legislature in his first two months in office. But while Cleveland was popular with the voters, he made enemies within his own party, particularly the powerful Tammany Hall political machine in New York City. However, he won the respect of New York state assemblyman and future U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) and other reform-minded Republicans. Cleveland was soon regarded as presidential material.

First Term in the White House: 1885-89

Cleveland won the Democratic presidential nomination in 1884 in spite of the opposition of Tammany Hall. The 1884 presidential campaign was ugly: Cleveland’s Republican opponent, U.S. Senator James G. Blaine (1830-93) of Maine, was implicated in several financial scandals, while Cleveland was involved in a paternity case in which admitted that he had paid child support in 1874 to a woman who claimed he was the father of her child. In spite of the scandal, Cleveland won the election with the support of the Mugwumps, Republicans who considered Blaine corrupt.

Once in office, Cleveland continued the policy of his predecessor, Chester Arthur (1830-86), in basing political appointments on merit rather than party affiliation. He tried to reduce government spending, using the veto more often than any other president up to that point. Cleveland was a noninterventionist in foreign policy and fought to have protective tariffs lowered.

In 1886, Cleveland married Frances Folsom (1864-1947), a student at Wells College in New York who was 27 years his junior. Although Cleveland was not the first president to marry while in office, he is the only one who had the ceremony in the White House. At age 21, Frances became the youngest first lady in U.S. history. The Clevelands would go on to have five children.

The tariff issue came back to haunt Cleveland in the presidential election of 1888. Former U.S. Senator Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901) of Indiana won the election, in large part because of heavy turnout by voters in the industrial states of the Northeast who saw their jobs threatened by lower tariffs. Cleveland even lost his home state of New York in that election. He returned to New York City and took a position in a law firm for the next four years.

Second Term in the White House: 1893-97

Unlike the campaign of 1884, the presidential campaign of 1892 was quiet and restrained. President Harrison, whose wife, Caroline Harrison (1832-92), was dying of tuberculosis, did not campaign personally, and Cleveland followed suit. Cleveland won the election, in part because voters had changed their minds about high tariffs and also because Tammany Hall decided to throw its support behind him.

Cleveland’s second term, however, opened with the worst financial crisis in the country’s history. The Panic of 1893 began with a railroad bankruptcy in February 1893, followed rapidly by bank failures, a nationwide credit crisis, a stock market crash and the failures of three more railroads. Unemployment rose to 19 percent, and a series of strikes crippled the coal and transportation industries in 1894. The American economy did not recover until 1896-97, when the Klondike gold rush in the Yukon touched off a decade of rapid growth.

Cleveland was inconsistent in his social views. On the one hand, he opposed discrimination against Chinese immigrants in the West. On the other hand, he did not support equality for African Americans or voting rights for women, and he thought Native Americans should assimilate into mainstream society as quickly as possible rather than preserve their own cultures. He also became unpopular with organized labor when he used federal troops to crush the Pullman railroad strike in 1894.

Cleveland was an honest and hard-working president but he is criticized for being unimaginative and having no overarching vision for American society. Opposed to using legislation to bring about social change, he is best known for strengthening the executive branch of the federal government in relation to Congress.

Final Years

By the fall of 1896, Cleveland had become unpopular with some factions in his own party. Other Democrats, however, wanted him to run for a third term, as there was no term limit for presidents at that time. Cleveland declined, and former U.S. Representative William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) of Nebraska won the nomination. Bryan, who later became famous as an opponent of British naturalist Charles Darwin’s (1809-82) theory of evolution, lost the 1896 election to Governor William McKinley (1843-1901) of Ohio.

After leaving the White House in 1897, Cleveland retired to his home in Princeton, New Jersey, and served as a trustee of Princeton University from 1901 until his death. He refused overtures from his party to run again for the presidency in 1904. His health began to fail rapidly at the end of 1907 and he died of a heart attack at the age of 71 on June 24, 1908. According to two of Cleveland’s biographers, his last words were, “I have tried so hard to do right.”


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PHOTO GALLERIES








Grover Cleveland: Defender of Hawaiian Independence

A report on NPR this morning noted that the United States had supported a coup against the Queen of Hawaii. It implied that this coup led directly led to the incorporation of Hawaii into the United States.

The full story of Hawaiian annexation is more complicated and more interesting. In early 1893, a cabal of American-born planters overthrew Queen Liliukalani. The American minister to Hawaii, who had aided the plotters, declared triumphantly, "The Hawaiian pear is now fully ripe, and this is the golden hour for the United States to pluck it." The outgoing administration of President Benjamin Harrison hurriedly drafted a treaty of annexation.

Although ultimate Senate passage seemed a foregone conclusion, the Democrats delayed the vote so that incoming President Grover Cleveland could get the glory of adding Hawaii to the U.S. map.

When Cleveland took office in March, however, he defied nearly everybody's expectations. He not only came out forcefully against the treaty of annexation but condemned the coup as illegal. He also called for restoration of the deposed Queen and reaffirmed what he saw as the American foreign policy tradition of non-interventionism.

Offered Hawaii on a silver platter, Cleveland stood up for principle and said"no." In 1898, he recalled "I regarded and still regard the proposed annexation of Hawaii as not only opposed to our national policy but as a perversion of our national mission. The mission of our nation is to build up and make a great country out of what we have, instead of annexing islands."

Cleveland held the line against annexation for the rest of his term. Meanwhile, the coup plotters, now shunned by the United States, had to content themselves by setting up a"Republic of Hawaii." Only in 1898 during the expansionist administration of Republican William McKinley was Hawaii incorporated into the United States.


Brief History of the Grover Cleveland Papers

An account of the Grover Cleveland Papers could more easily be written if the only president to serve two nonconsecutive terms had been more interested in preserving a written record of his activities. There is abundant evidence that the president wrote many of his letters in longhand and usually did not keep copies, and dispersed pages from drafts of official communications to autograph seekers. The somewhat casual attitude he took toward his papers was expressed in a January 16, 1897 letter he wrote toward the end of his second term to Richard Watson Gilder, editor of the Century Magazine and a longtime friend: &ldquoI have been so prodded by public duty for a number of years past that I have had no opportunity to look after the preservation of anything that might be useful in writing history.&rdquo

Records of Cleveland&rsquos first presidential administration (1885-1889) probably were placed at the disposal of Daniel Scott Lamont, who served as the president&rsquos private secretary during these years and as his secretary of war during the second administra­tion. It seems likely that the records of the second administration (1893-1897) were similarly placed at the dis­posal of Henry T. Thurber, private secretary to the president during those years. There are few papers dating from the years he served as sheriff of Erie County, N.Y. (1871-1873), as mayor of Buffalo (1882), and as Governor of New York (1883-1885).

In 1912, when the Library of Congress asked Cleveland&rsquos widow, Frances Folsom Cleveland Preston, to deposit the late president&rsquos papers, she agreed. The first shipment of Cleveland Papers arrived in 1915. Robert M. McElroy, Cleveland&rsquos authorized biographer, received additional papers from Mrs. Preston and other sources, which he sent to the Library of Congress between 1923 and 1925.

The principal portion of the Cleveland Papers was organized in 1929-1931. A sizeable addition expanded the collection in 2005, and material previously withheld for conservation treatment was added in 2007. Other materials subsequently obtained by the Library of Congress are contained in the Addition series.

A fuller history of the provenance of the collection was prepared for the Index to the Grover Cleveland Papers, pp. v-vii (PDF and HTML). A version appears on this website as the essay Provenance of the Grover Cleveland Papers.


Raping a date and fathering an illegitimate child upon his victim was the worst thing (that we know of) about Grover Cleveland. However, it was not his only pervy act. Another item from his personal life, which would amount to an icky sex scandal if it happened today, was the iffy relationship between Cleveland and his eventual wife, Frances Folsom (1864 &ndash 1947).

Frances Clara Folsom, was born in Buffalo, New York, the only surviving child of Oscar Folsom, a lawyer and longtime close friend of Cleveland. At age 27, the future president met his future wife and future First Lady shortly after she was born. Cooing over the newborn, Cleveland took an interest in baby Frances while she was still in swaddling clothes. He bought her a pram, used to babysit her as &ldquoUncle Cleve&rdquo, and doted on her.

Frances&rsquo father was killed in an accident while racing his carriage in 1875, and left no will. So a court appointed Cleveland to administer his deceased friend&rsquos estate. That brought him in even closer and more frequent contact with Frances. Cleveland became her new father figure, and her hero. Unlike Frances&rsquo real father, who had been notoriously careless of both his life and his family, &ldquoUncle Cleve&rdquo was dependable, quite attentive, and doting. He continued to dote on her as she grew up, and at some point, things went from doting to grooming: Cleveland took to sending her flowers, with notes saying &ldquoI am waiting for my bride to grow up&ldquo.

People thought Cleveland was kidding, but as things turned out, he was in deadly earnest. After Cleveland was elected president and while Frances was in college, he sent her a letter proposing marriage, and sweated her reply like a schoolboy. She agreed, and on June 2nd, 1886, as the Marine Band was conducted by John Philip Sousa, 21 year old Frances Folsom wed the 49 year old president in the White House&rsquos Blue Room. To date, it is the only time a president was married in the White House or while in office.


How Many Other People Have Gotten Married at the White House?

The Clevelands may be the only presidential couple to wed at the White House, but they’re far from the only couple. There have been eighteen weddings at the White House since Dolley Madison’s sister got married there in 1812.

Mostly, White House weddings have featured presidential relatives—sons, daughters, nieces, etc.

Richard Nixon and his daughter, Tricia, at her White House wedding in 1971 | Library of Congress

Only twice has a non-relative married at the White House. In 1942, Harry Hopkins—an assistant to Franklin Roosevelt—married at the White House. In 2013—the most recent White House wedding—Barack Obama’s photographer, Pete Souza, married in the Rose Garden.

Of course, there are some downsides to getting married at the White House. The attention is intense, your ceremony might be drowned out by protests—depending on what the president has done, lately—and the White House is, of course, a public place. When Jenna Bush got married in 2008, she opted to hold the ceremony at her parents’ ranch in Texas.


The First Grover Cleveland Administration: 1885-1889

Issue: Labor
This attitude extended to Cleveland’s stand on key labor issues of the time. Cleveland’s two terms encompassed several of the more infamous events in labor history. There was the 1886 general strike when workers demanded an eight-hour workday that resulted in the brutal Haymarket Riot in Chicago, followed a few years labor in the Pullman strike of 1894, when Cleveland used federal troops to end a train boycott organized by Eugene V. Debs.

Issue: The Economy
At the end of 1887, Cleveland called for a reduction in tariffs, arguing that high tariffs were contrary to the American ideal of fairness. Cleveland would later campaign on this issue for reelection in 1888. His opponents argued that high tariffs protected US businesses from foreign competition and Cleveland lost that election. Cleveland would be back again in 1892 for another four years. In 1888, when Cleveland ran for reelection, the Republicans spent lavish funds to insure victory for their candidate, Benjamin Harrison, raising three million dollars from the nation’s manufacturers. This marked the beginning of a new era in campaign financing. Again, New York was the deciding factor, and Harrison carried the day.


The First Grover Cleveland Administration: 1885-1889

Issue: Labor
This attitude extended to Cleveland's stand on key labor issues of the time. Cleveland's two terms encompassed several of the more infamous events in labor history. There was the 1886 general strike when workers demanded an eight-hour workday that resulted in the brutal Haymarket Riot in Chicago, followed a few years labor in the Pullman strike of 1894, when Cleveland used federal troops to end a train boycott organized by Eugene V. Debs.

Issue: The Economy
At the end of 1887, Cleveland called for a reduction in tariffs, arguing that high tariffs were contrary to the American ideal of fairness. Cleveland would later campaign on this issue for reelection in 1888. His opponents argued that high tariffs protected US businesses from foreign competition and Cleveland lost that election. Cleveland would be back again in 1892 for another four years. In 1888, when Cleveland ran for reelection, the Republicans spent lavish funds to insure victory for their candidate, Benjamin Harrison, raising three million dollars from the nation's manufacturers. This marked the beginning of a new era in campaign financing. Again, New York was the deciding factor, and Harrison carried the day.


Grover Cleveland

The first Democrat elected after the Civil War, Grover Cleveland was the only president to leave the White House and then return for a second term later.

One of nine children of a Presbyterian minister, Cleveland was born on March 18, 1837 in Caldwell, New Jersey. He was raised in upstate New York. As a lawyer in Buffalo, he became notable for his single-minded concentration upon whatever task faced him. At 44, he emerged into a political prominence that carried him to the White House in three years. Running as a reformer, he was elected mayor of Buffalo in 1881, and later, governor of New York.

Cleveland won the presidency with the support of Democrats and reform-minded Republicans, the “Mugwumps,” who disliked his opponent James G. Blaine of Maine.

The 1884 presidential contest was a no-holds-barred fight. The Democratic Party portrayed Blaine as an immoral and corrupt politician while stressing Cleveland's appeal as an honest civil servant. At the same time, Republicans accused him of avoiding military service during the Civil War, and called him "the hangman of Buffalo" for personally hanging two criminals while serving as sheriff. The most serious allegation against Cleveland revolved around his relationship with Maria Halpin. She accused Cleveland of assaulting and impregnating her in 1874. He never denied paternity and arranged for Maria to be institutionalized against her will so that he could take custody of the child, whom he named Oscar Folsom Cleveland. During the 1884 election, Democratic Party strategists insisted that Maria had slept with several men, including Cleveland’s deceased law partner, Oscar Folsom, and that Cleveland only claimed the child to protect Folsom’s marriage. However, there is no evidence to suggest Halpin ever had a relationship with Folsom. Nonetheless, the revelation did not sink Cleveland’s chances and he narrowly defeated Blaine. The campaign also inspired the famous ditty: "Ma! Ma! Where's my pa! Gone to the White House, Ha! Ha! Ha!"

Cleveland did not care for the extravagance of the Washington social scene he asked his sister, Rose, to accompany him to the White House to serve as its hostess early on in his administration. He also began courting Frances Folsom, the young daughter of Oscar Folsom, and the two married on June 2, 1886 in the Blue Room of the White House. The couple had five children together.

Cleveland vigorously pursued a policy barring special favors to any economic group. Vetoing a bill to appropriate $10,000 to distribute seed grain among drought-stricken farmers in Texas, he wrote: “federal aid in such cases encourages the expectation of paternal care on the part of the government and weakens the sturdiness of our national character.”

He also vetoed many private pension bills to Civil War veterans whose claims were fraudulent. When Congress, pressured by the Grand Army of the Republic, passed a bill granting pensions for disabilities not caused by military service, Cleveland vetoed that as well. Until the administration of Franklin Roosevelt, Cleveland issued more vetoes than any other president in history.

He angered the railroads by ordering an investigation of western lands they held by government grant. He forced them to return 81,000,000 acres. He also signed the Interstate Commerce Act, the first law attempting federal regulation of the railroads.

In December 1887 he called on Congress to reduce high protective tariffs. Told that he had given Republicans an effective issue for the campaign of 1888, he retorted, “What is the use of being elected or reelected unless you stand for something?” But Cleveland was defeated in 1888 although he won a larger popular majority than the Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison, he received fewer Electoral College votes.

Elected again in 1892, Cleveland faced an acute economic depression. He dealt directly with the Treasury crisis rather than with business failures, farm mortgage foreclosures, and unemployment. He obtained repeal of the mildly inflationary Sherman Silver Purchase Act and, with the aid of Wall Street, maintained the Treasury’s gold reserve.

When railroad strikers in Chicago violated an injunction, Cleveland sent federal troops to enforce it. “If it takes the entire army and navy of the United States to deliver a post card in Chicago,” he thundered, “that card will be delivered.” 150,000 railroad workers across the country supported the Pullman Strike. The arrival of the military sparked violence between troops and workers, resulting in dozens of deaths and millions of dollars in damage.

Some citizens appreciated Cleveland’s blunt treatment of the railroad strikers, but his aggressive approach drove many workers and labor activists from the Democratic Party. His policies to combat the country’s economic woes were generally unpopular, and as a result he declined to run for another term. After leaving the White House, Cleveland lived in retirement in Princeton, New Jersey. He died on June 24, 1908.


Grover Cleveland

The first Democrat elected after the Civil War in 1885, our 22nd and 24th President Grover Cleveland was the only President to leave the White House and return for a second term four years later (1885-1889 and 1893-1897).

The First Democrat elected after the Civil War, Grover Cleveland was the only President to leave the White House and return for a second term four years later.

One of nine children of a Presbyterian minister, Cleveland was born in New Jersey in 1837. He was raised in upstate New York. As a lawyer in Buffalo, he became notable for his single-minded concentration upon whatever task faced him.

At 44, he emerged into a political prominence that carried him to the White House in three years. Running as a reformer, he was elected Mayor of Buffalo in 1881, and later, Governor of New York.

Cleveland won the Presidency with the combined support of Democrats and reform Republicans, the “Mugwumps,” who disliked the record of his opponent James G. Blaine of Maine.

A bachelor, Cleveland was ill at ease at first with all the comforts of the White House. “I must go to dinner,” he wrote a friend, “but I wish it was to eat a pickled herring a Swiss cheese and a chop at Louis’ instead of the French stuff I shall find.” In June 1886 Cleveland married 21-year-old Frances Folsom he was the only President married in the White House.

Cleveland vigorously pursued a policy barring special favors to any economic group. Vetoing a bill to appropriate $10,000 to distribute seed grain among drought-stricken farmers in Texas, he wrote: “Federal aid in such cases encourages the expectation of paternal care on the part of the Government and weakens the sturdiness of our national character. . . . ”

He also vetoed many private pension bills to Civil War veterans whose claims were fraudulent. When Congress, pressured by the Grand Army of the Republic, passed a bill granting pensions for disabilities not caused by military service, Cleveland vetoed it, too.

He angered the railroads by ordering an investigation of western lands they held by Government grant. He forced them to return 81,000,000 acres. He also signed the Interstate Commerce Act, the first law attempting Federal regulation of the railroads.

In December 1887 he called on Congress to reduce high protective tariffs. Told that he had given Republicans an effective issue for the campaign of 1888, he retorted, “What is the use of being elected or re-elected unless you stand for something?” But Cleveland was defeated in 1888 although he won a larger popular majority than the Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison, he received fewer electoral votes.

Elected again in 1892, Cleveland faced an acute depression. He dealt directly with the Treasury crisis rather than with business failures, farm mortgage foreclosures, and unemployment. He obtained repeal of the mildly inflationary Sherman Silver Purchase Act and, with the aid of Wall Street, maintained the Treasury’s gold reserve.

When railroad strikers in Chicago violated an injunction, Cleveland sent Federal troops to enforce it. “If it takes the entire army and navy of the United States to deliver a post card in Chicago,” he thundered, “that card will be delivered.”

Cleveland’s blunt treatment of the railroad strikers stirred the pride of many Americans. So did the vigorous way in which he forced Great Britain to accept arbitration of a disputed boundary in Venezuela. But his policies during the depression were generally unpopular. His party deserted him and nominated William Jennings Bryan in 1896.

After leaving the White House, Cleveland lived in retirement in Princeton, New Jersey. He died in 1908.


About Their Lifelong Relationship & Age Difference

Last week, in the wake of the confirmation that New Jersey senator and presidential candidate Cory Booker is dating Rosario Dawson — raising the possibility of another White House wedding, should Booker be elected — CNN’s Jake Tapper brought up Cleveland’s history for his two million-plus Twitter followers.

Tapper did not mince words on his opinion about them, describing the relationship as “very sick” and “really quite disturbing” because of their association since Frances’ birth.

But Tapper incorrectly described Cleveland as Frances’ “legal guardian,” according to Dunlap, Frances’ biographer.

The National First Ladies’ Library notes that Cleveland was the executor of Frances’ father’s estate after his death but “he did not become the legal guardian of his future wife Frances Folsom Cleveland as has been widely believed.”

After her dad died, Frances and her mother were taken in by their extended family, Dunlap tells PEOPLE. Cleveland never lived in the household or took on day-to-day parenting responsibilities.

“There are other aspects where you can say that it’s a little bit kinky because he knew her from the time that she was born,” Dunlap acknowledges.

But, she says, “The only evidence of anybody who really suggested that this was a little bit not right was [Frances’] Wells College roommate, who pretty much said that she thought Frank could do better.”

Mark Summers, a professor at the University of Kentucky and author of the Cleveland biography Rum, Romanism, & Rebellion, tells PEOPLE that Cleveland’s �lings, as far as one can judge, were Victorian and eminently proper. We have no reason to think otherwise.”

Dunlap says that in talks she’s given about Frances, some audience members have expressed sentiments similar to Tapper’s. “He’s not the only one,” she says.

Still, Dunlap says, it was not strange in those times for younger women to marry older men. In the wake of the Civil War — which ravaged the country, killing hundreds of thousands of young men — women “had to have protectors and a source of income,” Dunlap says. 𠇊n age disparity was not so uncommon.”

Even among presidents, the age difference between Cleveland and Frances is not unusual, Summers says: John Tyler, who was president in the mid-19th century, was 30 years older than second wife Julia.


Presidential Children – the Cleveland Kids

Probably no prior presidential children were watched, followed, or written about as were Grover Cleveland’s. The entire nation followed the Cleveland family, and the antics of the children growing up in the White House. Although common today, Cleveland’s family was the first to receive this star treatment. Certainly, the advent of inexpensive newspapers, competition for readership, and the first newspaper chains increased the appetite for news of the children of the First Family.

It began during Cleveland’s first term when he married his 21 year old ward, Francis Folsom, the daughter of his best friend and law partner, Oscar Folsom, who died when Francis was a young child. She was extremely popular, being pictured in newspapers as the Queen of Hearts in a deck of cards.

Cleveland had five children, three daughters and two sons. He also accepted responsibility for another son born before he was married.

Oscar Folsom Cleveland, born 1874. Oscar was born to Maria Halpin, a widow from New Jersey who had left her two children behind and moved to Buffalo seeking a new life. She got a job in a department store and worked her way up to department manager. She kept company with a number of men, including Grover Cleveland and his law partner and best friend, Oscar Folsom, (hence her choosing those two names for the child). Grover accepted responsibility, even though he was uncertain of the child’s paternity, because the other men involved with Maria were married and he felt he had less to loose from such an admission. He decided, however, not to marry Mrs. Halpin. Shortly after Oscar’s birth, Maria began drinking heavily, and Grover Cleveland had Maria committed to an asylum for the sake of the child. Cleveland paid the $5.00 a week fee to keep Oscar in an orphanage until his mother improved. Maria Halpin kidnapped her child from the orphanage, but he was soon recovered. Cleveland paid Maria Halpin $500.00 to give up custody of Oscar, and she re-settled in New Rochelle, where she married. Oscar was adopted by a prominent New York family and became a doctor. (See the earlier article “Rum, Romanism and Rebellion” for more details)

Ruth Cleveland, 1891-1904. You have most probably heard of this presidential child, although you might not be aware of it. Ruth Cleveland, born in the period between her father’s non-consecutive terms, was very popular with the public, being called Baby Ruth in the press. She achieved a sort of immortality when a candy maker named the Baby Ruth candy bar after her. At the age of twelve, Ruth died of diphtheria. The entire nation mourned along with the Clevelands.

Esther Cleveland, 1893-1980. Esther is also famous, as the answer to a popular trivia question. Esther was the first, and to date the only, child of a president born in the White House. Esther did volunteer work in England during World War I, where she met her husband, Captain William Bosanquet of the British army. Bosanquet was an executive in the iron and steel industry. After her husband died, Esther returned to the United States and settled in Tamworth, New Hampshire.

Marion Cleveland, 1895-1977. Marion was born in Buzzard’s Bay, Massachusetts. She attended Columbia University Teachers College. Her first marriage was to Stanley Dell. In 1926, she married John Amen, a New York lawyer. From 1943 until 1960, Marion served as community relations adviser for the Girl Scouts of America at its New York headquarters.

Richard Folsom Cleveland, 1897-1974. Richard was born in Princeton, New Jersey. He served as a Marine Corps officer during World War I, and then graduated from Princeton in 1919, earned his master’s degree from Princeton in 1921, a law degree from Harvard Law School in 1924. He practiced law in Baltimore, Maryland and became active in democratic politics. At the 1932 Democratic Convention, Richard had the honor of giving the seconding speech for Governor Albert C. Ritchie of Maryland. From 1934-1935, Richard served as general counsel to the Public Service Commission in Baltimore. An anti-New Deal Democrat, he opposed the re-election of Franklin Roosevelt and was active in the American Liberty League.

Francis Grover Cleveland, born 1903. Also born in Buzzard’s Bay, Massachusetts, Francis graduated from Harvard University with a degree in drama. He taught for a while in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and then moved to New York to try for a career in the theater. He finally settled in Tamworth, New Hampshire, where he operated a summer stock company called the Barnstormers. He also won election as a selectman (town council).



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