Proclamation of Leo V the Armenian

Proclamation of Leo V the Armenian


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Leo V the Armenian

Leo V the Armenian (Greek: Λέων Ε΄ ὁ Ἀρμένιος , Leōn V ho Armenios Armenian: Լևոն Ե Հայ 775 – 25 December 820) was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 813 to 820. A senior general, he forced his predecessor, Michael I Rangabe, to abdicate and assumed the throne. He ended the decade-long war with the Bulgars, and initiated the second period of Byzantine Iconoclasm. He was assassinated by supporters of Michael the Amorian, one of his most trusted generals, who succeeded him on the throne.


Children

    (Συμβάτιος), renamed Constantine, co-emperor from 814 to 820. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father.
  • Basil. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father. Still alive in 847, recorded to have supported the election of Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople.
  • Gregory. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father. Still alive in 847, recorded to have supported the election of Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople.
  • Theodosios (died in 820). Died soon after his castration.

Strange, But Successful, War Tactics—Patience at the Battle of Versinikia

In the early 9 th century, multiple Byzantine emperors warred with Bulgaria. The Bulgarian khan of the time, named Krum, faced an invasion from Emperor Nicephorus I (also spelled Nikephoros) into Bulgarian territory. By 811 CE, the Emperor and his son were leading their army into Bulgaria. Their campaign, however, did not go as planned—Emperor Nicephorus I died in battle on Bulgarian soil and his son was mortally wounded.

The imperial throne passed over the dying son of the emperor and was bestowed upon a reluctant Michael Rangabe (Emperor Michael I), who was related to the former emperor by marriage. Michael I had very little time to settle into his new position as emperor, for Krum and the Bulgarians knew that imperial successions could leave the Byzantine Empire in a tumultuous and unstable state, ripe for invasion.

Khan Krum moved into the Byzantine-controlled regions of Thrace and Macedonia in 812 CE, occupying cities such as Develtus and Mesembria. With the Byzantine cities in his possession, Krum had the captured occupants shackled and sent back to Bulgaria to be forced into servitude. The khan sent an invitation to the Byzantine Emperor to begin a negotiation for peace, but the emperor, understandably, refused to consider an end to the war—after all, he was in the midst of gathering a massive army from the far reaches of his empire.

By 813 CE, the Byzantine army had grown enough for the emperor and his generals to confidently march against the Bulgarian forces. Michael I led his troops toward the Bulgarian front and camped his men at Versinikia, near Adrianople. Krum and the Bulgarians arrived at Versinikia soon after Michael I, and camped across from the Byzantines. For around two weeks, the Byzantine and Bulgarian forces held defensive postures, with no aggression or movement to be seen on either side. Despite having a much larger force than Krum, Michael refused to attack—a decision that made Byzantine soldiers, both officers and fresh recruits, disgruntled, anxious and mutinous.

Eventually, Michael I lost control of the situation. His troops no longer wanted to wait. John Haldon, a Princeton professor of history, claims that one Byzantine general, named Aplakes, who controlled an entire wing of Michael’s army, decided to charge the Bulgarian forces against the wishes of his emperor. Michael I, furious at his disobedient general, had the rest of the army continue to hold its position. Unaided by the other Byzantine troops, Aplakes and his men were cut down in what many call a massacre while the rest of the army was ordered to do no more than watch.

This event triggered something in Leo the Armenian, commander of the other Byzantine wing. With either disgust for the emperor’s actions, or a treacherous eye for the emperor’s throne, Leo gathered his men and withdrew from the battlefield. The men in the Byzantine middle, commanded by Emperor Michael, were in a terrifying situation—one wing of the army was massacred and the other had abandoned the emperor. With their fellow countrymen either dead or fleeing, Michael’s own troops lost the will to fight and fled from the battle.

On the other side of the battle, the Bulgarians were likely just now looking up from the corpses left behind from the fruitless Byzantine charge. Krum’s men must have expected to be encircled by the remainder of the Byzantine army, or at least involved in a second engagement. When their eyes focused on the other Byzantine divisions, however, they were astonished to find the large army of Michael I fleeing from the scene. Krum and the Bulgarians were so surprised by this sight, that they expected the retreat to be a clever ploy to pull the Bulgarian forces into a trap. Krum, however, soon realized the retreat was genuine and eagerly sent his cavalry to run down the Byzantine soldiers who were still in range.

Though the Battle of Versinikia, itself, was tragic and humiliating for Emperor Michael I, there was more yet to come. Leo, who had withdrawn from the fight, did not stop at abandoning his emperor in the midst of a battle. No, he used his troops to occupy the Byzantine capitol of Constantinople. He also used the example of the Battle of Versinikia to spread rumors of Emperor Michael I’s military incompetence.

By the time Michael made his way back to Constantinople, Leo had gained significant admiration and support from the Byzantine people. Michael still had a formidable force of loyal soldiers, but he refused to begin a civil war. Michael, who was reluctant to even take the throne only two years previously, decided to peacefully abdicate the throne to Leo, who became Emperor Leo V in 813 CE.

Michael and his family were spared from the political assassinations and murders that plagued the monarchal shifts in power throughout much of history. That does not mean, however, that Michael and his family were treated well. Michael was separated from his family and forced to spend the rest of his life in a monastery located on the island of Prote, and at least one of his sons (the eldest) was ordered by Emperor Leo V to be castrated.

The Battle of Versinikia was certainly a strange battle. Emperor Michael and the Bulgarian Khan Krum both used the same tactic—waiting. For Michael, this led to a humiliating defeat and the end of his dynasty. For Krum, however, doing nearly nothing at all during the Battle of Versinikia allowed him to defeat a much larger Byzantine army and begin events leading to another imperial succession that resulted in the downfall of Michael I and the rise of Leo V.


Massachusetts House

RESOLUTIONS MEMORIALIZING THE UNITED STATES SENATE TO RATIFY THE GENOCIDE CONVENTION OF 1948
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts
MAY 25, 1965

The House committee on Rules, to whom were referred the resolutions (filed by Messrs. Ohanian of Watertown, Khachadoorian
of Arlington, Bohigian of Worcester and Menton of Watertown) memorializing the United States Senate to ratify the Genocide
Convention of 1948 (House, No. 3975), report that the same ought to be adopted.
For the committee,
Robert H. Quinn.

WHEREAS, In this year of nineteen hundredand sixty-five, our fellow citizens of Armenian extraction join their brothers throughout the world in commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the initiation by the Turkish Government of a plan to destroy the Armenian minority in Turkey and

WHEREAS, This first modern genocide was to result in the massacre of over one million innocent Armenian men, women, and children in the brief period of several months and was to leave another million displaced, ill, maimed, and starving, torn forcibly from their homes and

WHEREAS, The massacres and deportations of the Armenians were accompanied by enormous cruelties, by torture, and by the abduction and forced conversion to Islam of countless children and

WHEREAS, The failure of the world to provide either justice for the Armenians or punishment for the Turkish war criminals provided encouragement to other would-be mass-murderers and

WHEREAS, Adolph Hitler himself, in ordering massacres in Poland in nineteen hundred and thirty-ninty, remarked, “Who speaks nowadays of the extermination of the Armenians”: and thereby embarked upon the systematic mass murder of some six million Jews, shocking again the conscience of civilized men throughout the world and

WHEREAS, The absence of justice for the Armenians motivated Professor Rafael Lemkin to coin the term “Genocide” and to work towards the development of an international treaty outlawing mass destruction of a minority and

WHEREAS, American leadership and encouragement did in 1948 result in the adoption by the United Nations of the Genocide Convention, with the United States as a signatory: and

WHEREAS, the Genocide Convention declares that genocide- murder with intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group causing the group’s members serious bodily or mental harm creating conditions calculated to bring about the group’s destruction in whole or part imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group: forcibly transferring children of the group to another group–is a crime in international law and

WHEREAS, President Harry S. Truman transmitted the Genocide Convention to the United States Senate in nineteen hundred and forty-nine, asking for its consent on ratification: and

WHEREAS, Today–after almost sixteen years — the Genocide Convention still remains in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee with three other human rights conventions–on forced labor, slavery, and women’s political rights–transmitted to the Senate by the late President John F. Kennedy.

WHEREAS, American failure to ratify the Genocide Convention, when sixty-seven other nations — including even West Germany and Turkey — have done so, contradicts the United States’ role as a champion of human rights, and as a leader in fostering the principle of rule of law and contradicts especially the United States’ role as a leader and signatory in relation to the Convention itself: and

WHEREAS, Thousands of Armenians, as well as Greeks, Jews, and others, have found in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts a refuge from the horrors of genocide therefore be it

Resolved, That the Massachusetts house of representatives respectfully urges the Senate of the United States to give evidence of Armenian commitment to the principles of universal human rights and justice by ratifying the Genocide Convention in this commemorative year of nineteen hundred and sixty-five and be it further

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent by the secretary of the commonwealth to the President of the United States, the Ambassador to the United Nations, the Secretary of State of the United States, and the members of the Senate of the United States.

Adopted.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, MAY 25, 1965.

ACTS, 1976
Chap. 92.
AN ACT AUTHORIZING THE ARMENIAN BICENTENNIAL COMMITTEE OF MASSACHUSETTS TO ERECT A PLAQUE IN THE STATE HOUSE.
May 4, 1976

Be it enacted, etc., as follows:

The Armenian Bicentennial Committee of Massachusetts is hereby authorized, subject to approval of the art commission as to size and content, to erect a plaque in an area of the state house to be designated by the art commission, in tribute to America and the commonwealth of Massachusetts for accepting the thousands of Armenians escaping the Turkish Genocide sixty-one years ago. The cost of said plaque shall be borne by said Armenian Bicentennial Committee of Massachusetts.

RESOLUTIONS ON THE OCCASION OF A DAY OF REMEMBRANCE FOR THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE OF 1915-1923
THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS
1990

RESOLUTIONS ON THE OCCASION OF A DAY OF REMEMBRANCE FOR THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE OF 1915-1923

WHEREAS, April 24, 1990 is being observed as a day of remembrance of the seventy fifth anniversary of the Armenian Genocide of 1915-1923 and

WHEREAS, one million five hundred thousand people of Armenian ancestry were victims of genocide perpetrated by the governments of the ottoman empire from 1915-1923 and

WHEREAS at the outbreak of world war I, the Young Turk regime decided to deport the entire Armenian population of over two million to Syria and Mesopotamia and

WHEREAS, Talaat Pahsa, leader of the Young Turk movement was principal author of the plan to exterminate the Armenians and

WHEREAS, the plan of genocide consisted of deporting all Armenian of whatever age or condition of health to the totally barren deserts of what is now Syria and

WHEREAS the Armenians were deported on foot, a death march in which more than one million died of starvation or were killed and

WHEREAS, Armenians were rounded up and brutally driven from their homes and their land, separated from families, robbed of everything they owned and stripped of all they carried with them and

WHEREAS thousands of Christian Armenians were tortured and murdered for refusing to accept Islam as their religion and

WHEREAS, the atrocities inflicted on Armenians on the death marches to the Syrian desert has been viewed as the prototype for the holocaust of World War II and

WHEREAS, the present day Turkish government has undertaken a policy of denial and distortion of the historical truth about the Armenian Genocide and

WHEREAS the Turkish government’s denial prevents an atonement by the Turkish people and

WHEREAS the Turkish Government’s denial makes it an accessory to the Young Turks’ crime against humanity, whose legacy Turkey today enjoys and

WHEREAS, the massacre of Armenians who escaped deportation and remained in Turkey was called the “Most colossal crime of all ages” by the examining American military mission’s report to the United States Congress’ and

WHEREAS, in a telegram sent by United States Ambassador Henry Morgenthau to the Secretary of State, Morgenthau warned that “A campaign of race extermination is in progress under a pretext of reprisal against rebellion” Therefore be it

Resolved, that the Massachusetts general court acknowledges the contribution to our commonwealth and country by the citizens of Armenian origin on the occasion of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Armenian Genocide of 1915-1923 and it calls upon the citizens of the commonwealth to observe April 24, 1990, by remembering the one million five hundred thousand people of Armenian ancestry who lost their lives in the genocide of 1915-1923 and be it further

Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be forwarded by the clerk of the House of Representatives to the Armenian National Committee of Eastern Massachusetts and the Armenian Rights Council

MASSACHUSETTS 181ST GENERAL COURT — 1997 REGULAR SESSION HOUSE BILL 3629
THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS
January 1, 1997

VERSION: Introduced

SYNOPSIS: AN ACT RELATIVE TO THE INSTRUCTION OF THE GREAT HUNGER PERIOD IN IRELAND, THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE AND THE HOLOCAUST.

TEXT: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:

Chapter 69, Section 1D of the General Laws is hereby amended by inserting after the second sentence of the third paragraph, “The standards must provide for instruction in the Great Hunger period in Ireland from 1845-1850, the Armenian Genocide from 1915-1923 and the Holocaust of 1933-1945.”

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES RESOLUTION ADOPTED
MASSACHUSETTS
APRIL 23, 2009

CALLING UPON THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS TO APPROVE HOUSE RESOLUTION 252 AND TO RECOGNIZE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

WHEREAS, THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE WAS CONCEIVED AND CARRIED OUT BY THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE FROM 1915 TO 1923, RESULTING IN THE DEPORTATION OF NEARLY 2,000,000 ARMENIANS, OF WHOM 1,500,000 MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN WERE KILLED, 500,000 SURVIVORS WERE EXPELLED FROM THEIR HOMES, AND WHICH SUCCEEDED IN THE ELIMINATION OF THE OVER 2,500-YEAR PRESENCE OF ARMENIANS IN THEIR HISTORIC HOMELAND AND

WHEREAS, ON MAY 24, 1915, THE ALLIED POWERS, ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND RUSSIA, JOINTLY ISSUED A STATEMENT EXPLICITLY CHARGING FOR THE FIRST TIME EVER ANOTHER GOVERNMENT OF COMMITTING A CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY AND

WHEREAS, HOUSE JOINT RESOLUTION 148, ADOPTED ON APRIL 8, 1975, RESOLVED:[T]THAT APRIL 24, 1975, IS HEREBY DESIGNATED AS “NATIONAL DAY OF REMEMBRANCE OF MAN’S INHUMANITY TO MAN”, AND THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES IS AUTHORIZED AND REQUESTED TO ISSUE A PROCLAMATION CALLING UPON THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES TO OBSERVE SUCH DAY AS A DAY OF REMEMBRANCE FOR ALL THE VICTIMS OF GENOCIDE, ESPECIALLY THOSE OF ARMENIAN ANCESTRY…. AND

WHEREAS, PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN IN PROCLAMATION NUMBER 4838, DATED APRIL 22, 1981, STATED IN PART “LIKE THE GENOCIDE OF THE ARMENIANS BEFORE IT, AND THE GENOCIDE OF THE CAMBODIANS, WHICH FOLLOWED IT—AND LIKE TOO MANY OTHER PERSECUTIONS OF TOO MANY OTHER PEOPLE—THE LESSONS OF THE HOLOCAUST MUST NEVER BE FORGOTTEN” AND

WHEREAS, HOUSE JOINT RESOLUTION 247, ADOPTED ON SEPTEMBER 10, 1984, RESOLVED [T]THAT APRIL 24, 1985, IS HEREBY DESIGNATED AS “NATIONAL DAY OF REMEMBRANCE OF MAN’S INHUMANITY TO MAN”, AND THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES IS AUTHORIZED AND REQUESTED TO ISSUE A PROCLAMATION CALLING UPON THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES TO OBSERVE SUCH DAY AS A DAY OF REMEMBRANCE FOR ALL THE VICTIMS OF GENOCIDE, ESPECIALLY THE ONE AND ONE-HALF MILLION PEOPLE OF ARMENIAN ANCESTRY…. AND

WHEREAS, PRESIDENT WILLIAM JEFFERSON CLINTON, ON APRIL 1998, STATED: “THIS YEAR, AS IN THE PAST, WE JOIN WITH ARMENIAN-AMERICANS THROUGHOUT THE NATION IN COMMEMORATING ONE OF THE SADDEST CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF THIS CENTURY, THE DEPORTATIONS AND MASSACRES OF A MILLION AND A HALF ARMENIANS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE IN THE YEARS 1915-1923 AND

WHEREAS, PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH, ON APRIL 24, 2004, STATED: “ON THIS DAY, WE PAUSE IN REMEMBRANCE OF ONE OF THE MOST HORRIBLE TRAGEDIES OF THE 20TH CENTURY, THE ANNIHILATION OF AS MANY AS 1,500,000 ARMENIANS THROUGH FORCED EXILE AND MURDER AT THE END OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE” AND

WHEREAS, THE COUNTRIES OF ARGENTINA, ARMENIA, BELGIUM, CANADA, CHILE, CYPRUS, FRANCE, GERMANY, GREECE, ITALY, LITHUANIA, LEBANON, NETHERLANDS, POLAND, RUSSIA, SLOVAKIA, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND, URUGUAY, VENEZUELA HAVE RECOGNIZED THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE AND

WHEREAS, 42 STATES OF THE UNITED STATES HAVE RECOGNIZED THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE AND

WHEREAS, HOUSE RESOLUTION 252 FILED ON MARCH 17, 2009 FOR THE 1ST SESSION OF THE 111TH CONGRESS IS CALLING UPON THE PRESIDENT TO ENSURE THAT THE FOREIGN POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES REFLECTS APPROPRIATE UNDERSTANDING AND SENSITIVITY CONCERNING ISSUES RELATED TO HUMAN RIGHTS, ETHNIC CLEANSING, AND GENOCIDE DOCUMENTED IN THE UNITED STATES RECORD RELATING TO THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE AND

RESOLVED, THAT THE MASSACHUSETTS HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES URGES THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES APPROVE HOUSE RESOLUTION 252 AND RECOGNIZE THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE AND BE IT FURTHER

RESOLVED, THAT A COPY OF THESE RESOLUTIONS BE FORWARDED BY THE CLERK OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES TO THE PRESIDING OFFICER OF EACH BRANCH OF CONGRESS AND TO THE MEMBERS THEREOF FROM THE COMMONWEALTH.

COSPONSOR LISTING:

Geraldo Alicea James Arciero Cory Atkins
Demetrius J. Atsalis Ruth B. Balser
John J. Binienda
Daniel E. Bosley Bill Bowles Garrett J. Bradley Michael Brady
Jennifer M. Callahan Thomas J. Calter
Linda Dean Campbell Christine E. Canavan James Cantwell Katherine Clark Geraldine Creedon Sean Curran
Steven D’Amico Robert A. DeLeo
Viriato Manuel deMacedo Brian S. Dempsey Stephen DiNatale
Paul J. Donato Christopher J. Donelan Mark V. Falzone Robert F. Fennell
Ann-Margaret Ferrante Barry R. Finegold David L. Flynn
John P. Fresolo William C. Galvin Sean Garballey Thomas A. Golden, Jr. Mary E. Grant William G. Greene, Jr. Danielle Gregoire Patricia A. Haddad Jonathan Hecht Bradford Hill
Kevin G. Honan Bradley H. Jones Jr Michael F. Kane Jay R. Kaufman John D. Keenan Kay Khan
Peter V. Kocot Robert M. Koczera Peter J. Koutoujian Paul Kujawski William Lantigua Jason Lewis Barbara A. L’Italien Timothy Madden Ronald Mariano Allen McCarthy James R. Miceli Charles A. Murphy Kevin J. Murphy
David M. Nangle Robert J. Nyman James J. O’Day Matthew Patrick Jeffrey D. Perry George N. Peterson, Jr. Elizabeth A. Poirier Denise Provost
Angelo Puppolo Kathi-Anne Reinstein Robert L. Rice, Jr.
Jeffrey Sánchez Rosemary Sandlin John W. Scibak Carl Sciortino Stephen Smith Frank Israel Smizik Thomas M. Stanley Ellen Story William M. Straus David B. Sullivan Walter F. Timilty
Timothy J. Toomey, Jr. Alice K. Wolf


Leo V "the Armenian", byzantine emperor

LEON "the Armenian", son of BARDAS & his wife --- (-murdered Constantinople 24 Dec 820). Genesius records Leon’s immediate ancestry, naming "Leo…imperator, Bardæ quidam patricii filius, sed genus ducens ex Armenia"[832]. Genesius records that Leon grew up at Pidra in the theme of Anatolikon[833].

Also known as der Armenier. He was born um 775. He was christened. Geloof: gr.K. Profession: Ks. v. Byzanz. He died on December 25, 820 in Byzanz, he was 45 years old. früh am Morgen kurz vor vier während der Weihnachtsmesse am Altar in der Hagia Sophia ermordet He is buried in Prinzeninseln im Marmarameer.

Occupation From 0813 to 0820 Emperor of Byzantium

Biography

From Encyclopedia Britannica online, article titled Leo V:

"byname Leo The Armenian ( b. Armenia?d. Dec. 25, 820, Constantinople), Byzantine emperor responsible for inaugurating the second Iconoclastic period in the Byzantine Empire.

"When Bardanes Turcus and Nicephorus I were fighting over the Byzantine throne in 803, Leo at first joined Bardanes but later sided with Nicephorus. Leo distinguished himself as a general under Nicephorus I and Michael I and became strategus (?general?) of the Anatolikon district of the empire. He took part in the campaign of 813 against the Bulgars, but, when Michael unwisely refused the peace terms they offered, the Asian troops under Leo deserted at the Battle of Versinikia, near Adrianople. Leo then deposed Michael I and in July 813 replaced him.

"Meanwhile, Krum, the Bulgarian khan, had reached the walls of Constantinople. Leo succeeded in drawing him back and concluded a treaty with Krum's successor, Omortag, that determined the boundary between the two countries and provided a 30-year peace."

In March 815 Leo deposed the Orthodox patriarch Nicephorus and convoked a synod for the following month that reimposed the decrees of the Iconoclast synod of Hieria of 754, which had opposed the use of icons (religious images). Leo was assassinated during a Christmas service in the church of Hagia Sophia by friends of Michael the Amorian, whom Leo had condemned to death the day before on a charge of treason. After the assassination Michael ascended the throne as Michael II.

Family

Leo was the son of the patrician Bardas, who was of Armenian descent (according to Theophanes Continuatus, Leo was also of 'Assyrian',[2] [3] descent). Leo served in 803 under the rebel general Bardanes Tourkos, whom he deserted in favor of Emperor Nikephoros I. The Emperor rewarded Leo with two palaces, but later exiled him for marrying the daughter of another rebel, the patrician Arsaber. .

All known children of Leo V are traditionally attributed to his wife Theodosia, a daughter of the patrician Arsaber.[15]

Genesius records four sons:[16]

  1. Symbatios (Συμβάτιος), renamed Constantine, co-emperor from 814 to 820. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father.
  2. Basil. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father. Still alive in 847, recorded to have supported the election of Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople.
  3. Gregory. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father. Still alive in 847, recorded to have supported the election of Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople.
  4. Theodosios (died in 820). Died soon after his castration.
  5. Anna, who married Hmayeak, a Mamikonian prince (died c. 797), by whom she had Konstantinos, an officer at the court of Emperor Michael III.[17][18]

Possible descendants

. This suggests that Basil was a great-grandson of Maiactes and not old enough to have seen the wars with Krum of Bulgaria, which would make Leo V and Theodosia fourth-generation ancestors of Basil.[15]

The theory has been accepted by several genealogists, including Christian Settipani in his search for descent from antiquity. The name "Anna" has been suggested for the daughter of Leo V and Theodosia, because it was given to daughters of Basil I, Leo VI the Wise, Constantine VII and Romanos II--almost every emperor that would claim descent from this woman.[15]

References

    The family origins of Emperor Leon V have been the subject of debate, both regarding his remote ancestry and his more immediate parentage. page 13 - 14

Über Leo V "the Armenian", byzantine emperor (Deutsch)

LEON "the Armenian", son of BARDAS & his wife --- (-murdered Constantinople 24 Dec 820). Genesius records Leon’s immediate ancestry, naming "Leo…imperator, Bardæ quidam patricii filius, sed genus ducens ex Armenia"[832]. Genesius records that Leon grew up at Pidra in the theme of Anatolikon[833].

Also known as der Armenier. He was born um 775. He was christened. Geloof: gr.K. Profession: Ks. v. Byzanz. He died on December 25, 820 in Byzanz, he was 45 years old. früh am Morgen kurz vor vier während der Weihnachtsmesse am Altar in der Hagia Sophia ermordet He is buried in Prinzeninseln im Marmarameer.

Occupation From 0813 to 0820 Emperor of Byzantium

Biography

From Encyclopedia Britannica online, article titled Leo V:

"byname Leo The Armenian ( b. Armenia?d. Dec. 25, 820, Constantinople), Byzantine emperor responsible for inaugurating the second Iconoclastic period in the Byzantine Empire.

"When Bardanes Turcus and Nicephorus I were fighting over the Byzantine throne in 803, Leo at first joined Bardanes but later sided with Nicephorus. Leo distinguished himself as a general under Nicephorus I and Michael I and became strategus (?general?) of the Anatolikon district of the empire. He took part in the campaign of 813 against the Bulgars, but, when Michael unwisely refused the peace terms they offered, the Asian troops under Leo deserted at the Battle of Versinikia, near Adrianople. Leo then deposed Michael I and in July 813 replaced him.

"Meanwhile, Krum, the Bulgarian khan, had reached the walls of Constantinople. Leo succeeded in drawing him back and concluded a treaty with Krum's successor, Omortag, that determined the boundary between the two countries and provided a 30-year peace."

In March 815 Leo deposed the Orthodox patriarch Nicephorus and convoked a synod for the following month that reimposed the decrees of the Iconoclast synod of Hieria of 754, which had opposed the use of icons (religious images). Leo was assassinated during a Christmas service in the church of Hagia Sophia by friends of Michael the Amorian, whom Leo had condemned to death the day before on a charge of treason. After the assassination Michael ascended the throne as Michael II.

Family

Leo was the son of the patrician Bardas, who was of Armenian descent (according to Theophanes Continuatus, Leo was also of 'Assyrian',[2] [3] descent). Leo served in 803 under the rebel general Bardanes Tourkos, whom he deserted in favor of Emperor Nikephoros I. The Emperor rewarded Leo with two palaces, but later exiled him for marrying the daughter of another rebel, the patrician Arsaber. .

All known children of Leo V are traditionally attributed to his wife Theodosia, a daughter of the patrician Arsaber.[15]

Genesius records four sons:[16]

  1. Symbatios (Συμβάτιος), renamed Constantine, co-emperor from 814 to 820. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father.
  2. Basil. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father. Still alive in 847, recorded to have supported the election of Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople.
  3. Gregory. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father. Still alive in 847, recorded to have supported the election of Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople.
  4. Theodosios (died in 820). Died soon after his castration.
  5. Anna, who married Hmayeak, a Mamikonian prince (died c. 797), by whom she had Konstantinos, an officer at the court of Emperor Michael III.[17][18]

Possible descendants

. This suggests that Basil was a great-grandson of Maiactes and not old enough to have seen the wars with Krum of Bulgaria, which would make Leo V and Theodosia fourth-generation ancestors of Basil.[15]

The theory has been accepted by several genealogists, including Christian Settipani in his search for descent from antiquity. The name "Anna" has been suggested for the daughter of Leo V and Theodosia, because it was given to daughters of Basil I, Leo VI the Wise, Constantine VII and Romanos II--almost every emperor that would claim descent from this woman.[15]


Head of the Department, Maruqyan Armen Ts., Candidate of History

1. Simonyan Hrachik R., Chief researcher, Academician
2. Stepanyan Stepan S., Chief researcher, Doctor of Sciences, Prof.
3. Sarukhanyan Norik B., Leading researcher, Doctor of Sciences
4. Khosroeva Anahit R.,Senior researcher, Candidate of Sciences, Biography and publications
5. Hovhannisyan Lilit H., Senior researcher, Candidate of History
6. Gasparyan Ruben H., Senior researcher, Candidate of History
7. Boyajyan Hovakim S., Senior researcher, Candidate of History
8. Poghosyan Beniamin P., Senior researcher, Candidate of History
9. Aleqsanyan Alla V., Researcher
10. Karagulyan Narine R.,Senior laboratorian
11. Melkonyan Ekaterina K., Senior laboratorian
12. Kosyan Lilit S., Senior laboratorian

In 1977 on the Academician M. Nersisyan’s initiative in the Institute of History was established the department of the Armenian-Russian historical relations. Although based on the ideological and political situation the department did not officially engaged in the problems of the history of the Armenian Issue and the Armenian Genocide, but in these areas were carried out some works as these issues were among scientific interests of M. Nersisyan. M. Nersisyan headed the department until 1999. After the proclamation of the independence of the Republic of Armenia, in 1992 in the Institute were done some structural changes. There were created new thematic research groups. In the department was created a new thematic group "Armenian Issue, the Armenian Genocide and the Great States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries", the head of which was appointed Doctor S. Stepanyan. Then on the basis of this thematic group was created the department of the history of the Armenian Issue and the Armenian Genocide. From 1999 to 2010 the department was headed by Prof. S. Stepanyan. In 2010 Doctor R. Gasparian was appointed in the head of the department. In 2011 Maruqyan Armen was elected as the head of the department. The research workers of the department have published many scientific works concerning various aspects of the Armenian Issue and the Armenian Genocide.
Under the M. Nersisyan’s edition was published the collection of documents and materials "Armenian Genocide in Ottoman Empire” (in 1966, 1982 in Russian, in 1991 in Armenian), which was the first scientific publication of documents concerning the Armenian genocide. Many articles of M. Nersisyan are also devoted to the Armenian Issue and the Armenian Genocide. In the collection of articles and research "Pages from the New History of the Armenian people" are included the rebellion of Zeithun of 1862 and the materials concerning the massacres of the Armenians.
Academician Hr. Simonyan published monographs and other works – “Ideology and Policy of the Turkish National Bourgeoisie” (Yerevan, 1986, in Armenian), “In the Ways of the Liberation Struggle” (Yerevan, 2009, in Armenian), “From the History of Turkish-Armenian Relations” (Yerevan, 1991, In Armenian).
R. Gasparyan published the following works - “The Armenian of Cilicia in the Early 20th century” (Yerevan, 1999, in Armenian), “The Massacres of the Armenians (in the nineties of 19th to 1921)” (Yerevan, 2005, in Armenian).
Professor S. Stepanyan published the following works – “Armenia in the Policy of Imperialist Germany (end of 19th and the beginning of 20th centuries)”, (Yerevan, 1975, in Russian), “German Sources on the Armenian genocide. Collector, author of the foreword, notes, and editor S. Stepanyan”, (Yerevan, 1991, in Russian), “Armin Wegner and Ernst Werner on the Armenian Genocide”, (Yerevan, 1996, in Armenian), “Iohannes Lepsius and Armenia”, (Yerevan, 1998, in Armenian), “The First Genocide of the 20th century: the Problem of International Recognition, Overcoming of the Consequences of Genocide and Historical Lessons”, (Yerevan, 2005, in Russian), “The Trial of Talaat Pasha”, (Compiler of the book, with a preface and notes by S. Stepanyan, Yerevan, 2007, in Russian).
Advanced researcher of the Department, Doctor N. Sarukhanyan published the following works – “The Armenian Issue in the Social-Political Thought and Historiography of Pre-Soviet Armenia”, (Yerevan, 1997, in Armenian), “Leo and the Armenian Issue”, (Yerevan, 1998, In Armenian), “Aleksey Djivelegov as a Historian and the Armenian Issue”, (Yerevan, 2008, in Armenian).
Senior researcher of the Department A. Marukyan published the following works – “The Armenian Issue and the Policy of Russia (1915-1917)”, (Yerevan, 2003, in Russian), “Russia and the Armenian Genocide in 1915-1917”, (collection of documents, Yerevan, 2004, In Armenian), “The Problem of the Armenian Genocide in Modern Genocidology”, (Yerevan, 2010, in Russian).
Advanced researcher of the Department V. Poghosyan published the following works – “The Massacres of the Armenians in Cilicia in 1909 by the Assessment of French Historical Scholarship”, (Yerevan, 2009, in Armenian), “Les massacres des arméniens de Marache en 1920” (Yerevan, 2010).
Senior researcher of the Department L. Honvhannisyan published the monograph “The Armenian Issue and the Great States in 1914-1917”, (Yerevan, 2002, in Armenian).
Senior researcher of the Department B. Poghosyan published the following works – “Pro-Armenian Movement in the United Kingdom by Documents (1918-1923)”, (Yerevan, 2002, in Armenian), “The Activities of the Committee Britain-Armenia (1913-1924)”, (Yerevan, 2003, in Armenian), “Pro-Armenian Movement in the United Kingdom by Documents (1914-1923)”, (Yerevan, 2005, in Armenian), “Turkish - American Relations and the Issue of USA Recognition of the Armenian Genocide in 1991-2007”, (Yerevan, 2011, in Armenian).
Senior researcher of the Department H. Boyajyan published the monograph “Poghos Nubar Pasha and the Problem of Reforms in Western Armenia in 1912-1914”, (Yerevan, 2010, in Armenian).
The primary task of the department is making of cadres. The department is also involved in the preparation of volumes III and IV of the multivolume history of Armenia.


Leo V

Leo was the son of the patrician Bardas, who was of Armenian descent. Leo served in 803 under the rebel general Bardanes Tourkos, whom he deserted in favor of Emperor Nikephoros I. The emperor rewarded Leo with two palaces, but later exiled him for marrying the daughter of another rebel, the patrician Arsaber. Recalled by Michael I Rangabe in 811, Leo became governor of the Anatolic theme and conducted himself well in a war against the Arabs in 812. Leo survived the Battle of Versinikia in 813 by abandoning the battlefield, but nevertheless took advantage of this defeat to force the abdication of Michael I in his favor on July 11, 813.

With Krum of Bulgaria blockading Constantinople by land, Leo V had inherited a precarious situation. He offered to negotiate in person with the invader and attempted to have him killed in an ambush. The stratagem failed, and although Krum abandoned his siege of the capital, he captured and depopulated Adrianople and Arkadioupolis (Lüleburgaz). When Krum died in spring 814, Leo V defeated the Bulgarians in the environs of Mesembria (Nesebar) and the two states concluded a 30-year peace in 815.

Michael I on a shield with Leo V

With the iconodule policy of his predecessors associated with defeats at the hands of Bulgarians and Arabs, Leo V reinstituted Iconoclasm after deposing Patriarch Nikephoros and convoking a synod at Constantinople in 815. The emperor used his iconoclast policy to seize the properties of iconodules and monasteries, such as the rich Stoudios monastery, whose influential iconodula abbot, Theodore the Studite, he exiled.

Leo V appointed competent military commanders from among his own comrades-in-arms, including Michael the Amorian and Thomas the Slav. He also persecuted the Paulicians. When Leo jailed Michael for suspicion of conspiracy, the latter escaped from prison and organized the assassination of the emperor in the cathedral Hagia Sophia on Christmas, 820. Leo was praying alone before the altar, with his guards standing outside the church. The conspirators were disguised as priests and monks lead by Michael who had been set free by his partisans only hours before entered the church. When they approached Leo they drew their daggers to stab him. Leo, suspecting something was wrong, jumped away when he saw the daggers and tried to flee and call for his guards, but the doors were locked and his guards were slain by the conspirators. Unarmed, Leo tried to defend himself with a large wooden cross in one hand and an incense burner with the other, attacking Michael and his followers. This battle lasted for an hour and finally Leo succumbed to the wounds inflicted upon him. Michael was immediately proclaimed Emperor on the spot still wearing the chains from the prison in his hands.

By his wife Theodosia, a daughter of the patrician Arsaber, Leo V had several children, including:


Leo V

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Leo V, byname Leo the Armenian, (died Dec. 25, 820, Constantinople), Byzantine emperor responsible for inaugurating the second Iconoclastic period in the Byzantine Empire.

When Bardanes Turcus and Nicephorus I were fighting over the Byzantine throne in 803, Leo, son of the patrician Bardas, at first served Bardanes but later sided with Nicephorus. Leo distinguished himself as a general under Nicephorus I and Michael I and became strategos (“general”) of the Anatolikon district of the empire. He took part in the campaign of 813 against the Bulgars, but, when Michael unwisely refused the peace terms they offered, the Asian troops under Leo deserted at the Battle of Versinikia, near Adrianople. Leo then deposed Michael I and in July 813 replaced him.

Meanwhile, Krum, the Bulgarian khan, had reached the walls of Constantinople. Leo succeeded in drawing him back and concluded a treaty with Krum’s successor, Omortag, that determined the boundary between the two countries and provided a 30-year peace. In the ʿAbbāsid caliphate the troubles following the death of the caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd in 809 continued to provide the empire a respite from threats from the east.

In March 815 Leo deposed the Orthodox patriarch Nicephorus and convoked a synod for the following month that reimposed the decrees of the Iconoclast synod of Hieria of 754, which had opposed the use of icons (religious images). Leo was assassinated during a Christmas service in the church of Hagia Sophia by friends of Michael the Amorian, whom Leo had condemned to death the day before on a charge of treason. After the assassination Michael ascended the throne as Michael II.


Byzantine Emperors of Armenian descent on gold coin

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural and military force in Europe.

Even though Armenia was only in part a vessel of the Byzantine Empire, many Armenians became extremely successful in the Empire. Armenians were represented in all walks of Byzantine life from bishops, architects, generals and even Emperors. So much so that some historians estimate that one out of five Byzantine emperors and empresses were full or in part of Armenian ancestry.

Bellow is a list of gold coin (a.k.a. solidus) of Byzantine Emperors confirmed (by at least 3 or more source) to have full or partial Armenian ancestry.

Maurice (r. 582-602)

A prominent general, Maurice fought with success against the Sasanian Empire. Under him the Empire’s eastern border in the South Caucasus was vastly expanded. Maurice also campaigned extensively in the Balkans against the Avar Khaganate pushing them back across the Danube. Maurice also made the first real effort to halt the advance of the Lombards in Italy. The Byzantine troops were able to hold the Danube line. Meanwhile, Maurice was making plans for repopulating devastated areas in the Balkans by using Armenian settlers.

Medieval Armenian historians such as Stepanos Taronetsi and Kirakos Gandzaketsi claim Maurice to be of Armenian origin. It has been accepted by Nicholas Adontz, Peter Charanis and Henri Grégoire.

Herakleios (r. 610-641)

Heraclius drove the Persians out of Asia Minor and pushed deep into their territory, defeating them decisively in 627 at the Battle of Nineveh. This way peaceful relations were restored to the two deeply strained empires. Heraclius was the eldest son of Heraclius the Elder and Epiphania, of a family of Armenian origin from Cappadocia, with speculative Arsacid descent. Heraclius took for himself the title of “King of Kings” after his victory. Later on, starting in 629, he styled himself as Basileus, the Greek word for “sovereign”. The reason Heraclius chose this title over previous Roman terms such as Augustus has been attributed to his Armenian origins.

Herakleios was the son of Heraclius the Elder, who is almost universally recognized as an Armenian. Walter Kaegi notes that Heraclius was presumably “bilingual (Armenian and Greek) from an early age. According to 7th century Armenian historian Sebeos, Heraclius was related to the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia. In a letter, Priscus, a general who had replaced Heraclius the Elder, wrote to him “to leave the army and return to his own city in Armenia”.

Mizizios (r. 668-669)

Mizizios (Armenian: Mzhezh) was an Armenian noble who served as a general of Byzantium, later usurping the Byzantine throne in Sicily from 668 to 669. According to the Byzantine chroniclers, Mizizios was an Armenian, and “exceedingly handsome and beautiful”.

Considered Armenian by mainstream scholarship. He came from the Gnuni family.

Philippikos Bardanes (r. 711-713)

Philippicus was originally named Bardanes (Armenian: Vardan). He was the son of the patrician Nikephorus, who was of Armenian extraction from an Armenian colony in Pergamum. Among his first acts were the deposition of the orthodox patriarch Cyrus of Constantinople, in favour of John VI, a member of his own sect, and the summoning of a conciliabulum of Eastern bishops, which abolished the canons of the Sixth Ecumenical Council.

Considered Armenian by mainstream scholarship.

Artabasdos (r. 741-743)

Artavasdos or Artabasdos (from Armenian: Artavazd), was a Byzantine general of Armenian descent who seized the throne in June 741. Emperor Anastasius II appointed the Armenian Artabasdos as governor of the Armeniac theme (Thema Armeniakōn), the successor of the Army of Armenia, located in Armenia Minor with its capital at Amasea. After Anastasius’ fall, Artabasdos made an agreement with his colleague Leo, the governor of the Anatolic theme, to overthrow the new Emperor Theodosius III. This agreement was sealed with the engagement of Leo’s daughter Anna to Artabasdos, and the marriage took place after Leo III ascended the throne in March 717.

In June 741 or 742, after the accession of Leo’s son Constantine V to the throne, Artabasdos resolved to seize the throne. He seized Constantinople amid popular support and was crowned emperor. Soon after his accession, Artabasdus crowned his wife Anna as Augusta and his son Nikephoros as co-emperor, while putting his other son Niketas in charge of the Armeniac theme.

Considered Armenian by mainstream scholarship. Nina Garsoïan suggests that he hailed from the Mamikonian house.

Leo V the Armenian (r. 813-820)

Leo was the son of the patrician Bardas, who was of Armenian descent. Leo became governor of the Anatolic theme and conducted himself well in a war against the Arabs in 812, defeating the forces of the Cilician thughur under Thabit ibn Nasr.

Leo V ended the decade-long war with the Bulgars, and initiated the second period of Byzantine Iconoclasm. Leo V appointed competent military commanders from among his own comrades-in-arms, including Michael the Amorian and Thomas the Slav. He also persecuted the Paulicians. When Leo jailed Michael for suspicion of conspiracy, the latter organized the assassination of the Emperor in the palace chapel of St. Stephen on Christmas Eve, 820.

Leo V is widely called Armenian by modern and Byzantine scholarship. Armenian chronicles claimed he was an Artsruni.

Michael III (r. 842-867)

Michael III was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian (or Phrygian) dynasty. Michael III played a vital role in the resurgence of Byzantine power in the 9th century, with his main achievement being the Christianisation of Bulgaria.

Michael III took an active part in the wars against the Abbasids and their vassals on the eastern frontier and particularly in 857 when he sent an army of 50,000 men against Emir Umar al-Aqta of Melitene. In 859, he personally led a siege on Samosata, but in 860 had to abandon the expedition to repel an attack by the Rus’ on Constantinople.

Under the guidance of Patriarch Photios, Michael sponsored the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodios to the Khazar Khagan in an effort to stop the expansion of Judaism among the Khazars. Although this mission was a failure, their next mission in 863 secured the conversion of Great Moravia and devised the Glagolitic alphabet for writing in Slavonic thus allowing Slavic-speaking peoples to approach conversion to Orthodox Christianity through their own rather than an alien tongue.

Mother of Michael III, Theodora, the wife of Theophilos is considered by most scholars to have been of Armenian origin.

Basil I (r. 867-886)

Born a simple peasant in the theme of Macedonia, he rose in the Imperial court. Earned the notice of Michael III by his abilities as a horse tamer and in winning a victory over a Bulgarian champion in a wrestling match he soon became the Byzantine Emperor’s companion, confidant, and bodyguard. Symeon Magister describes Basil as “… most outstanding in bodily form and heavy set his eyebrows grew together, he had large eyes and a broad chest, and a rather downcast expression”.

During Basil’s reign, an elaborate genealogy was produced that purported that his ancestors were not mere peasants, as everyone believed, but descendants of the Arsacid (Arshakuni) kings of Armenia. The historians Samuel of Ani and Stephen of Taron record that he hailed from the village of Thil in Taron.

Basil I became an effective and respected monarch, ruling for 19 years, despite being a man with no formal education and little military or administrative experience. During his reign Basil was heavily reliant on the support of Armenians in prominent positions within the Byzantine Empire.

His father is widely considered to be of Armenian origin. The Armenian descent of his mother is debated but usually also considered Armenian. Armenian medieval historians Samuel Anetsi and Stepanos Taronetsi claimed that he hailed from the region of Taron. He is also “presumed to have descended from the kingly house of the Arsacids.”

Romanos I Lekapenos (r. 913-959)

Romanos Lekapenos, born in Lakape between Melitene and Samosata (hence the name), was the son of an Armenian peasant with the remarkable name of Theophylact the Unbearable. The first four years of Romanos’ reign were spent in warfare against Bulgaria and eventually negotiated a 40 year peace with Bulgaria and established an alliance with the Serbs. Romanos was also able to effectively subdue revolts in several provinces of the empire, most notably in Chaldia, the Peloponnese, and Southern Italy. The capture of Melitene is often considered the first major Byzantine territorial recovery from the Muslims.

The Khazars were the allies of the Byzantines until the reign of Romanos, when he started persecuting the Jews of the empire. According to the Schechter Letter, the Khazar ruler Joseph responded to the persecution of Jews by “doing away with many Christians”, and Romanos retaliated by inciting Oleg of Novgorod against Khazaria.

According to several scholars Romanos I Lekapenos was of Armenian descent.

Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963-969)

His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. Under his reign, relations with the Bulgarians worsened. It is likely that he bribed the Kievan Rus to perform a raid on the Bulgarians in retaliation for them not blocking Magyar raids. This breach in relations instigated a decades-long decline in Byzantine-Bulgarian diplomacy and was a precursor for the wars fought between the Bulgarians and later Byzantine emperors. Nikephoros led an army of 40,000 men which conquered Cilicia and conducted raids in Upper Mesopotamia and Syria.

According to several scholars he was of at least partial Armenian descent.

John I Tzimiskes (r. 969-976)

An intuitive and successful general, he strengthened the Empire and expanded its borders during his short reign. John I Tzimiskes was born into the Kourkouas clan, a family of Armenian origin. Scholars have speculated that his nickname “Tzimiskes” was derived either from the Armenian Chmushkik (Չմշկիկ), meaning “red boot”, or from an Armenian word for “short stature”. A more favorable explanation is offered by the medieval Armenian historian Matthew of Edessa, who states that Tzimiskes was from the region of Khozan, from the area which is now called Chmushkatzag.” Khozan was located in the region of Paghnatun, in the Byzantine province of Fourth Armenia (Sophene). He seems to have joined the army at an early age, originally under the command of his maternal uncle Nikephoros Phokas. The latter is also considered his instructor in the art of war. Partly because of his familial connections and partly because of his personal abilities, Tzimiskes quickly rose through the ranks. He was given the political and military command of the theme of Armenia before he turned twenty-five years old.

Tzimiskes distinguished himself during the war both at the side of his uncle and at leading parts of the army to battle under his personal command, as in the Battle of Raban in 958. He was rather popular with his troops and gained a reputation for taking the initiative during battles, turning their course.

Considered Armenian by mainstream scholarship. According to the medieval Armenian historian Matthew of Edessa Tzimiskes was from the region of Khozan, from the area which is now called Chmushkatzag.”


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