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The War at Sea, 1939-1945, Volume I: The Defensive, S. W. Roskill. This first volume in the British official history of the war at sea covers the period from the outbreak of the war through to the first British disasters in the Pacific in December 1941. Amongst other topics it covers the Norwegian campaign, the evacuation from Dunkirk and the first two years of the Battle of the Atlantic. The text is meticulously researched, and is rooted in a detailed study of wartime records, both British and German. [see more]
Sacrifice at Calais
When the English Channel port of Boulogne fell to the Germans on May 25, 1940, the troops defending Calais a little to the north were the only line of defense between the German panzers and the remnants of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), desperately hoping for evacuation from Dunkirk.
At 9 p.m. that evening, Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent the following communiqué to the British commander at Calais, Brigadier Claude Nicholson: “Every hour you continue to exist is of the greatest help to the BEF. Government has therefore decided you must continue to fight. Have greatest possible admiration for your splendid stand. Evacuation will not (repeat not) take place, and craft required for above purpose are to return to Dover….” Churchill wrote later, “One has to eat and drink in war, but I could not help feeling physically sick as we afterwards sat silently at the table.” As he did so, the defenders clung grimly to their positions, fighting until the following evening when their heroic resistance finally petered out. If one episode might be said to have permitted the miracle of Dunkirk to succeed, then it is probably the defense of Calais.
The German forces that crossed the frontiers of the Netherlands, Belgium and France on May 10, 1940, so completely succeeded in their aim of cutting through the Allies’ defenses that within 10 days they had reached the Channel coast and cut the BEF and a French army off from the rest of France. On May 19, the commander in chief of the BEF, General John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort, warned the British War Office that it might have to consider evacuating the BEF. The same day, discussions began between the War Office and the Admiralty under the code name “Dynamo” about the “possible but unlikely evacuation of a very large force in hazardous circumstances.”
Following an enforced day of rest, the panzers were on the move again on May 22. Having reached the coast near St. Valéry two days earlier, they were now instructed to swing northeast toward the Channel ports. Resistance was patchy and disorganized, and by the evening they had reached the gates of both Boulogne and Calais. The next day, the 1st Panzer Division was moved from the gates of Calais to attack the British toward the line of the Aa Canal to the east, and the 10th Panzer Division was brought in to mop up the defenders of the famous old port. The 20th (Guards) Brigade was holed up in Boulogne, where the medieval ramparts proved more formidable than expected, while in Calais a defense was being hurriedly prepared.
Calais had been used extensively throughout the so-called “Phoney War” period as a transit camp for men on compassionate leave. On May 20, Colonel R.T. Holland was appointed base commandant and ordered to arrange for the evacuation of “useless mouths.” At the same time, the anti-aircraft defenses were to be greatly improved and the 6th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Battery, Royal Artillery (RA), the 172nd Light Anti-Aircraft Battery, RA, and the 1st and 2nd Searchlight batteries were moved up from Arras and deployed in a semicircle around the town. Over the next four days, Holland began the process of evacuation on steamers from the Gare Maritime, while combat troops arrived on incoming vessels. In the meantime, he located some 150 noncombatants in the town, and a platoon of Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders was detailed to guard a Royal Air Force (RAF) radar station. There were also 1 1/2 French infantry companies based at Fort Risban, to the west, with two field guns at the citadel and a number of other French troops manning the coastal defenses.
There was considerable confusion throughout the next few days, with contradictory orders and a lack of firm control, so that it was not clear to anybody if the Channel ports were even to be defended. At 10 p.m. on May 21, Lt. Col. Reginald Keller was taking his wife to dinner on the eve of his expected departure for France when he was called to the telephone. He was ordered to return immediately to his unit, the 3rd Battalion, Royal Tank Regiment (RTR), for embarkation. After putting out calls in local cinemas and pubs, only one officer and 25 men were missing when the unit entrained for Dover at midnight. The tanks, however, were buried in the hold of the ship City of Christchurch in Southampton when the men left aboard Maid of Orleans at 11 the next morning. Arriving at the Gare Maritime at 1:15 p.m., they had no knowledge of their vehicles until they appeared out of the mist at 4 p.m. Had either ship been hit in the meantime, the battalion would have been useless.
Amid a mass of confusion and panic as refugees and noncombatants struggled to make good their escapes, Keller managed to locate Holland, who told him to get unloaded as soon as possible. At that point, Lt. Gen. Sir Douglas Brownrigg, adjutant general of the BEF, appeared on his way to be evacuated. He ordered Keller to “move into harbor at the Forêt de Boulogne and get in touch with 20th (Guards) Brigade.” Fortunately for Keller, he would be unable to comply with that order. Some three hours after the conversation, elements of the 1st Panzer Division were occupying the Forêt de Boulogne.
The unloading went slowly. Visits from the Luftwaffe were compounded by the discovery that all the weapons were packed in mineral jelly, and that many parts for weapons, vehicles and radios were missing. During the night, contradictory orders were received from Gort’s headquarters and from Brownrigg (now safely ensconced in Dover). A patrol of light tanks was sent out at 6:30 a.m., May 23, but ran into trouble, and the unloading was still incomplete when Keller decided that he must try his best to follow Gort’s instructions and move toward St. Omer in the opposite direction from Boulogne. At 2:15 p.m., his column moved out through a dense swarm of refugees. After a mile, they saw an armored column halted under some trees. Major Quentin Carpendale described what happened: “I moved my troop across country to investigate and thought they must be French because I had never been led to believe that there was any chance of meeting Germans in force. We came upon the column which was stationary and resting and they were as surprised to see us as we them–there was only 20 yards between us when I realized they were Germans. An officer fired a revolver at my head as I was looking out of the turret.”
Keller was forced to retire to the village of Coquelles. There he was told that Brigadier Claude Nicholson wanted to meet him. “Get off the air,” he replied. “I’m trying to fight a battle!” Around 5 p.m., the two met at the village, and Keller learned that Nicholson had been appointed commander of the Calais garrison, which included Keller’s command. Known collectively as the 30th Brigade, formed the previous April for service in Norway, the infantry component was comprised of the 2nd Battalion, King’s Royal Rifle Corps (KRRC), and the 1st Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (RB), both of which were regular motor battalions, and the 1st Battalion, Queen Victoria’s Rifles (QVR), which was a Territorial Army motorcycle battalion.
The latter was equipped and trained to act as divisional cavalry for the 1st London Motor Division, a home-defense formation. The commanding officer, Lt. Col. J.A.M. Ellison-McCartney, was the bursar of Queen Mary College of the University of London. Many of his best men were away attending officer training courses or had returned to industry. In their place, he had 200 militiamen, but the unit was hopelessly ill-equipped, even to undertake its intended role. A third of the men were armed only with pistols, for which they had received no training. Having received orders to move overseas, they were then told that they could not take their transport and arrived on the quayside at Calais in circumstances very similar to those of the 3rd Battalion, RTR, on the afternoon of May 23. Colonel Holland was astonished to find that a motorcycle battalion had been ordered to leave its transport in England nevertheless, he directed them to block the six main roads into town, an enormous perimeter for less than 600 men with no transport.
The Green Jackets of the 1st Battalion, RB, under Lt. Col. Chandos Hoskyns, and the 2nd Battalion, KRRC, commanded by Lt. Col. Euan Miller, were much stronger and better equipped, as well as being prewar Regulars from regiments with outstanding traditions. The first to arrive on May 23 were the men of the 2nd Battalion. They had made a long and difficult journey from East Anglia via Southampton and were fortunate to be short only a few scout cars. Embarkation was a complete muddle as overzealous staff officers took over the proceedings, and the regimental officers were pushed to one side. Consequently, disembarkation was equally chaotic as men were separated from their units. Accompanying the battalions were the 229th Anti-Tank Battery, RA, and Brigadier Nicholson and his headquarters staff. However, nobody in either battalion was at all clear as to what was expected of them.
During the crossing, as they were subjected to air attacks and the sound of gunfire ashore grew louder and more distinct, Nicholson directed the first unit off to take the right side of the town. Thus, the 2nd Battalion, KRRC, marched by companies along the south edge of the Bassin des Chasses de l’Est, arriving at 2:30 p.m. to await their transport. The 1st Battalion, RB, took a position in the sandhills to the north. Major Alexander Allan wrote an account of their arrival: “Broken glass from the station and hotel buildings littered the quay and platforms in which many bomb craters were visible besides overturned and bombed trucks on the lines.” Troops were being loaded for the return journey to England. “These troops were in the main non-combatant personnel, RAF ground staff, HQ clerks, etc., who suffered a severe battering from the Luftwaffe on their way to the coast,” Allan wrote. “They bore every sign of this and made a far from cheerful welcome to the theater of war.”
With the personnel ashore only an hour before the vehicle ships arrived, Nicholson received an order from the War Office which could only be carried out with motor transport. The Rifle Brigade was to accompany a column of 10-ton trucks carrrying rations to Dunkirk for the BEF, which had been on half rations since the retreat to the coast began. The task was to be given “priority over all other considerations.” The only chance of success was to move immediately, but that was impossible.
While the 30th Brigade was disembarking and trying to get organized, the battle for Calais was commencing in earnest in the countryside beyond. Assault Group Krüger of the 1st Panzer Division was moving eastward, outside the southern perimeter, when it encountered the 3rd Battalion, RTR. After a brief fight, German light tanks advanced on the St. Omer canal, where they were held up for half an hour by C Troop of the 1st Searchlight Battery under 2nd Lt. R.J. Barr. Even when assaulted by heavier German tanks, the troop held on for three more hours before surrendering. The defense of Orphanage Farm, site of Air Defence Calais’ headquarters, under Lt. Col. R.M. Goldney, became the focal point of the battle for the next five hours. Between 2 and 7 p.m., the defending force was subjected to fierce shelling and bombing until Goldney decided that the position was no longer tenable. With the farm in flames, the defenders retired into the town.
The panzers’ remorseless advance had been hampered on its left flank by tanks and searchlights. The 1st Panzer Division’s war diary for May 23 stated: “Assault Group Krüger…stood at the gates of Calais when darkness fell. It was reported that the town was strongly held by the enemy and that a surprise attack was out of the question. The capture of Calais was handed over to 10th Panzer Division while 1st Panzer Division was ordered to push on towards Gravelines and Dunkirk.” Had Calais fallen on the 23rd, there would have been nothing to stop the panzers from reaching Dunkirk before the defenses were organized. At the same time, the day’s fight had bought a breathing space for Nicholson to organize his own defense.
Nicholson had received orders from Brownrigg to advance from Calais and attempt to relieve Boulogne. Had he made such a move with the 3rd Battalion, RTR, and his motor battalions, he would have been quickly overwhelmed, lacking any artillery support as he did. But Nicholson was a cool-headed professional and soon realized that Brownrigg’s orders were impossible. He appreciated that the defense of Calais itself was the urgent task.
While the engagement of the afternoon was in progress, the 10th Panzer Division was ordered by General Heinz Guderian to take the town as soon as possible. The divisional commander, Maj. Gen. Ferdinand Schaal, initially planned a coup de main but was to be disappointed. His men had been in continuous and fast-moving action for almost two weeks and were exhausted and suffering from casualties, most recently from sustained RAF air attack. Throughout May 23 and 24, Schaal demanded heavy anti-aircraft protection, and Guderian was concerned himself. At 5 p.m. on May 24, some hours after the attack on the town had been launched, Guderian told Schaal: “If there are heavy losses during the attack on Calais, it should only be continued with support from dive bombers and when heavy artillery can be brought up after the surrender of Boulogne. There must be no unnecessary losses.”
As Schaal pondered his plan of attack, Nicholson was in Holland’s cellar headquarters on the Boulevard Léon Gambetta. He had problems of his own, stemming from his large perimeter and limited resources. A senior French army officer had arrived from Dunkirk and was placed under Nicholson’s command by the French Corps at Dunkirk. A number of coastal artillery emplacements were also taken over, although most were designed to fire out to sea and were of limited value. The fixed defenses of Calais had a long history and were begun in the 16th century when it was an English town. The remaining ramparts and bastions, even where they had been improved since the FrancoPrussian War of 1870, could not stop a determined force with modern artillery and air support, however. Nicholson knew it was pointless to put his regular troops in front of those ramparts, and after careful study of the street plan, he decided that the best hope lay in the canal lines within the town. He therefore issued orders that the outer perimeter was to be held and all roads, railroads and other approaches were to be blocked. As the battalion commanders left to organize their areas, the sound of firing could be heard drawing closer.
Throughout the night of May 23-24, it remained unclear whether the brigade would be evacuated. Conflicting reports were received, and by the early morning of the 24th, around 2,000 of the defenders of Boulogne had been evacuated. At 3 a.m., a message was received that the 30th Brigade would also be evacuated. The message arrived while Nicholson was with Hoskyns on the Dunkirk road preparing to escort the BEF rations. He duly ordered his staff to prepare an operation order to that effect, to be implemented the following night. The attempted ration run ended inevitably in failure, with tanks lost and the riflemen returning to Calais. It was now obvious that the town was surrounded.
By 7:30 a.m., it was widely known that the plan was to evacuate and, consequently, unloading at the Gare Maritime stopped, although only half of the 1st Battalion’s transport had been brought ashore. With shells falling and her decks already covered with wounded, City of Canterbury departed at 8:30 a.m., taking the other half of the vital transport. Throughout the morning of the 24th, nonfighting men were released to join those aboard Kohistan, which left at noon. Nobody knew at the time that Kohistan was the last ship to do so.
After the incident on the Dunkirk road, Nicholson returned to the Boulevard Léon Gambetta, and the real battle for the town began. The Germans attacked at dawn, under cover of heavy and accurate mortar and artillery fire, moving against the south and southwest of the town and the advanced positions held by the 1st Battalion, QVR, who were pulled back to strengthen the 2nd Battalion, KRRC. The 10th Panzer Division was surprised by the strength of the resistance, but by 10:15 a.m. it had driven back Rifle Regiment 69 from Guines, captured the Pont de Coulogne and breached the outer perimeter. On the western side, Rifle Regiment 86 took Coquelles and directed shellfire onto the harbor, Oyez farm and Fort Nieulay–the latter a critical position in the next few hours.
Many French and Belgian soldiers were sheltering in cellars and other havens and took no part in the fighting. Others were to play important roles, particularly manning the fixed defenses. French naval tugs were operating, and many personnel had already embarked when Capitaine de Frégate Carlos de Lambertye asked for volunteers to man his forts. Those “Volunteers of Calais” marched back to occupy the crucial Bastion 11. That evening, about 100 more occupied Bastion 12, and in all, some 800 played a part in defending the honor of France–while the remainder waited in the cellars for the town to fall.
Captain A.N.L. Munby of 1st Battalion, QVR, was ordered to block the road to Boulogne, now open after the retirement of 3rd Battalion, RTR. His 59 men joined a French contingent of around 40 in Fort Nieulay, which they held under heavy fire until 4:30 p.m. on May 24. The Germans bypassed the fort and launched fierce attacks against the Allied center all day. There, the line was held by 2nd Battalion, KRRC, which destroyed two light tanks and drove the others off.
With the departure of Kohistan, Colonel Holland attempted to get as much support together as possible from the ranks of the largely unarmed rabble crowding the docks. Second Lieutenant Airey Neave from a searchlight unit was sent to support B Company, 2nd Battalion, KRRC. The commanding officer, Major J.S. Poole, was a veteran of World War I. “I am afraid they may break through,” said Poole, surprising Neave with the anxiety in his voice. “Get your people in the houses either side of the bridge. You must fight like bloody hell.”
Nicholson’s plans for withdrawal to the inner perimeter of Calais involved the 2nd Battalion, KRRC, the 1st Battalion, QVR, and the searchlight units that were most heavily engaged that day. He knew he must hold out as long as possible but still expected to be evacuated. He hoped to keep 1st Battalion, RB, in reserve to cover evacuation from the Gare Maritime. By 6 p.m., he had completed his plans, and 1st Battalion, QVR, was pulled back to a cellulose factory to act as a reserve for 2nd Battalion, KRRC. The Germans did not interfere. That evening, Nicholson retired his own headquarters to the Gare Maritime and later to the citadel to form a combined headquarters with the senior French officer, a Commandant Le Tellier. During the night, Nicholson received incorrect reports of relief, which raised false hopes.
Schaal had limited his attacks during the 24th to probing the outer perimeter. Before commencing major attacks the following morning, he sent his panzers to join those of the 1st Panzer Division east of the town, now halted at Gravelines to prevent the escape of any troops from Calais while preparing for a major assault with his infantry. He was confident of a speedy conclusion but did not follow up the British retirement during the night.
Throughout the 25th, the Germans mounted sustained attacks supported by artillery and dive bombers. They made little headway, however, and Nicholson twice refused to surrender. British patrols in the area of Boulevard Léon Gambetta engaged the approaching Germans, but by 8 a.m. the swastika was flying above the Hôtel de Ville. Land-line communications with London were cut, and Nicholson now had to rely on wireless. Some of the Germans thought the battle over, which slowed the attack.
The Germans sent the mayor of the town as a delegate to request surrender. “Surrender?” said Nicholson. “If the Germans want Calais, they will have to fight for it.” When the mayor failed to return, Schaal sent another envoy. The reply was recorded in the German war diary. “The answer is no as it is the British Army’s duty to fight as well as the German’s.” After a lull, Schaal ordered the battle renewed and the citadel destroyed. That was easier said than done. Built to withstand the most devastating bombardments, it still stands today despite the worst attentions of the RAF in 1944.
At 2 p.m., with the battle intensifying, Nicholson received a message from British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden. “Defense of Calais to the utmost is of the highest importance to our country as symbolizing our continued co-operation with France.” That was the first indication that evacuation might not actually happen. As the bitter street fighting continued, British casualties were mounting inexorably. Unfortunately, a plan to launch a counterattack, using some tanks of the 3rd Battalion, RTR, moving to the southeast, disorganized the 1st Battalion, RB, as the pressure mounted. At 3:30 p.m., Colonel Hoskyns was mortally wounded. The defenders never managed to recover their balance, although they continued to fight on doggedly.
After a renewed bombardment, the Germans began to advance again at 7 p.m., this time closely supported by tanks recalled from Guines to the east. Despite severe casualties, the 2nd Battalion, KRRC, managed to stem the advance. As darkness approached, the bitter fighting died down. The staff of the 1st Panzer Division announced, “The attack on the Old Town has been held back. The enemy fights in a most tough and ferocious manner.” Schaal decided to call off the attack at 9:45 that evening and asked Guderian for further fire support. The Germans were unaware that the defenders were exhausted and desperately short of ammunition. By midnight, except for the fires burning around the Place des Armes, all was quiet. The battalions faced the morning with about 250 men each, with no tank, anti-tank or artillery support, but still undefeated.
On the morning of May 26, supported by Junkers Ju-87 Stuka dive bombers and precise mortar fire, the Germans came on once more. Steadily the British were driven back, and the French at Fort Risban finally raised a white flag. The defense clung tenaciously to some positions, fighting to the last man. Finally, at 11 a.m., Bastion 11 was forced to surrender with barely a man unwounded. The defense at last began to collapse. Soldiers were rounded up in small groups, and the citadel finally succumbed at 3 p.m. The final surrender came at Oyez farm where B Company, 1st Battalion, QVR, had held out since the beginning.
For most of the defenders, it was the beginning of five years in captivity. Nicholson died in 1943. Airey Neave became the first man to escape from the notorious Colditz Castle in 1942. He later served as a member of Parliament until his assassination by the Irish National Liberation Army in a bomb attack in 1979.
The defense of Calais is a story of determination against enormous odds that, according to important German sources, contributed to the successful evacuation at Dunkirk. Three hours after the fall of the citadel, the Admiralty announced that Operation Dynamo, the Dunkirk miracle, was about to begin.
The 10th Panzer’s Blitz Across France Prior to Operation Barbarossa, Major General Ferdinand Schaal had already proved that his 10th Panzer Division was a fast moving, hard hitting weapon. During the invasion of France, the 10th served as part of the southern thrust under the XIX Corps, which was led by one of Germany’s most audacious commanders, Lieutenant General Heinz Guderian.
When the code word “Danzig” reached Schaal on the morning of May 10, 1940, the division exploded forward, advancing 45 miles on the first day. The 10th was the first division to encounter the enemy and quickly routed the 2nd French Cavalry. As the division advanced, its greatest problem proved to be not the enemy to its front but the congested roads to its rear, which hampered efforts to resupply the rapidly advancing tanks. The problem with resupply became so acute that Guderian was forced to declare a general halt to return marching discipline to the ranks.
The next day the 10th Panzer got bogged down in a large forest, falling behind the other panzer divisions until it broke through into open country. By May 12, Schaal’s 10th Panzer had reached the Meuse River near Sedan, France. The division deployed around the town and prepared to cross the river, ignoring the French artillery that harassed its flanks.
Crossing the Meuse on the 13th did not go as planned. First, the Luftwaffe did not hit many of the French positions on the opposite bank, and second, the French artillery had zeroed in on the open terrain all along the river. The 10th Panzers first attempt to cross the river failed under the withering French artillery fire. Schaal refused air support during this assault, having lost confidence in the Luftwaffe’s ability to destroy the French defenses. Late that day, a single German rifle company managed to established a small bridgehead, but it was nightfall before bridges were laid and tanks could cross the river. The 10th Panzer’s infantry made the initial advances until forced to wait for the tanks. When the tanks finally arrived, they broke through the last French defenses and began the race to the English Channel.
During the 10th’s advance, Guderian visited the division twice. On the first visit, he found Schaal close to the front, where one of his colonels was directing a reconnaissance battalion in an attack on French defenses. Guderian later commented, “The steady way the division moved forward under the command of its officers was an impressive sight.” The second time Guderian visited the 10th’s headquarters, he was briefed by Schaal’s staff, because Schaal was forward with his troops.
With virtually no resistance to slow its advance, the 10th raced across France and then turned north, arriving at the coastal town of Calais on May 24. Guderian again visited Schaal and offered to have the Luftwaffe strike the town. Schaal refused, not wanting to pull his men back and not believing that the Luftwaffe could fulfill the job. The 10th Panzer took Calais two days later, capturing 20,000 prisoners.
Farther east, however, Guderian’s entire corps was halted outside of Dunkirk on May 24 because Hitler ordered the town left to the Luftwaffe. Troops advancing on Dunkirk pulled back, and the Luftwaffe attacked, allowing two-thirds of the British army to escape and fight another day.
Despite his frustration at Dunkirk, Guderian, in an address to the XIX Corps, praised his panzer divisions for advancing more than 400 miles in 17 days, reaching the English Channel without faltering and carrying out every order with devotion. Guderian concluded his address rather ominously, proclaiming, “Now we shall arm ourselves for new deeds.”
The Citadel, Calais, 1940 - History
The Siege of Calais (1940) was a battle for the port of Calais during the Battle of France in 1940. They also exercised their influence on the Duchy of Brittany and the County of Toulouse. ¿Recomendarías este sitio o esta actividad a, ¿Son los precios de este sitio o esta actividad, ¿Es este un sitio o una actividad románticos que recomendarías a, ¿Recomendarías este sitio o actividad a un amigo que busque, ¿Recomendarías este sitio o esta actividad a un amigo que, ¿Es una parada obligatoria si se viaja con un, ¿Es esta atracción un lugar adecuado para visitar en la, Avenue Pierre de Coubertin, 62100, Calais Francia. King Francois II had the old English district pulled down in 1560. . He defeated the French at the Battle of Crécy-in-Ponthieu in 1346. Si resides en otro país u otra región, selecciona la versión correspondiente de Tripadvisor en el menú desplegable. The inhabitants of Calais surrendered on 1 June 1347, after an 11-month siege, in order to save their city from destruction. Two-hundred-and-ten years later, on January 7, 1557, the Duke François de Guise, the lieutenant general of the kingdom under Henri II of France, re-took Calais from the English! A strong citadel was built on the west side of the town, incorperating the medieval castle into one corner. The origin of the conflict goes back to the 11th century. Haz clic aquí si deseas obtener más información o ajustar la configuración. It originally dates from 1869, but Lello brothers built a new bookstore on the current location in 1906. el sitio histórico pensamos en encuentro. They also occupied it, until the signature of the Treaty of Vervins in May 1598, which returned the city to the king of France. The dynasty of the Plantagenêts, Counts of Anjou, indeed extended their influence on the Duchy of Normandy and several counties through various marriages and alliances. The building and its belfry were inaugurated in 1925. On the first floor, it includes bated arch, divided into three vains, with the central arch providing entrance into the building and decorative lateral windows, each surmounted by flag adapted to the archway. The Citadel of Calais. Two large towers were built in the late 10th century in order to protect the expanding port Modern day Calais is a gigantic sea port and the first passenger port in France! Decidimos ir en coche hasta que mi hijo podía mirar alrededor. However, Philippa of Hainault pleaded in their favour and convinced her husband Edward III to show mercy and spare their life. It offers free Wi-Fi access throughout and all the rooms have a LCD TV. Its purpose of its construction was to fend off would-be invaders, but it wasn't long until the city was successfully invaded by Archduke Albert of Austria on 24 April 1596. Extensive restoration work was put in place in order to rescue some historic buildings. Photo: Davy-62, CC BY-SA 2.0 fr. You can add your own historic sites and attractions to SpottingHistory.com. The building still retains the rails and wooden cart once used to move books around the store between the shelves. The architect Louis Debrouwer was one of the pioneers of reinforced concrete architecture. A statue of a knight mounting the guard stands in front of each face of the clock it represents Duke François de Guise, who seized Calais from the English. The ditches, the walls’ curtains and the 'demi-lune' barbican defending the Porte de Neptune were classified in 1990. The Citadel of Calais is a fortress that was initially constructed in the 16th century on the ruins of a medieval castle dating from the 13th century and whose purpose was to defend the city of Calais. Basilica of Notre-Dame de Boulogne (30,3 km). No había ninguna información sobre el mismo día citadelle_nus y dirigido de hecho un estadio deportivo ha sido construido dentro, Hoteles de playa que admiten mascotas en Calais, Hoteles con suites y bañeras hidromasaje en Calais, Hoteles baratos que admiten mascotas en Calais, Hoteles cerca de Musee des Beaux-Arts de Calais, Hoteles cerca del (CDG) Aeropuerto de París-Charles de Gaulle, Hoteles cerca del (ORY) Aeropuerto de París-Orly, Hoteles cerca del (BVA) Aeropuerto de Beauvais Tillé, La Cite De La Dentelle Et De La Mode De Calais, Puntos emblemáticos y de interés en Calais, Tiendas especializadas y de regalos en Calais, Centros de juego y entretenimiento en Calais, Recorridos en barco y deportes acuáticos en Calais, Ver todos los hoteles cerca de La Citadelle en Tripadvisor, Ver todos los restaurantes cerca de La Citadelle en Tripadvisor. Follow us to get best travel tips to interesting historic sites! The belfry symbolises also the merging of Calais and the town of Saint-Pierre-lès-Calais in 1881. Lo sentimos, no hay rutas ni actividades disponibles para reservar online en las fechas seleccionadas. Luego continuará el viaje a York visitando las murallas de York Minster y York. The original small fishing village and its port were known as Calesium, or Kales in old Flemish. Los siguientes lugares para visitar son Edimburgo, Distrito de los Lagos, Manchester, Stratford-upon-Avon, Bicester Village. These have also reached Calais on the Eurostar, since the inauguration of the Channel Tunnel in 1994. Enter your email address and password to log on. Un campo de hockey. The citadel was turned into sports grounds in 1960 this stadium is known as Stade du Souvenir. It's absolutely free, easy, and you can do it even without registration (of course you an also create an free account)! Al hacer clic en el sitio o navegar por él, aceptas el uso que hacemos de las cookies. You can add your own historic sites and attractions to SpottingHistory. Habiendo visitado regularmente citadelles en Francia fue una decepción. The city and its port were severely damaged during WWI, and mostly destroyed during WWII. After the Franco-British counter-attack at the Battle of Arras (21 May), German units were held back to be ready to resist a resumption of the counter-attack on 22 May, despite the protests of General Heinz Guderian, the commander of the XIX Armee Korps, wh… He then advanced towards the port of Calais to secure a landing point for his troops and invade the Kingdom of France. Los niños disfrutaron de escala los pasos y caminar alrededor del perímetro, pero un poco triste no había nada que explicará la historia del edificio. The 75m high Flemish and Renaissance style belfry was built with red bricks supported by a reinforced concrete frame. Calais’ prime strategic location was well recognised in the 19th century the citadel indeed housed a garrison of 1,000 men! The siege was fought at the same time as the Battle of Boulogne, just before Operation Dynamo, the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) through Dunkirk. Esta es la versión de nuestra página web dirigida a los hablantes de Español en España.
King Francois II had the old English district pulled down in 1560. Two-hundred-and-ten years later, on January 7, 1557, the Duke François de Guise, the lieutenant general of the kingdom under Henri II of France, re-took Calais from the English!
This major conflict opposed them to their 'dear English neighbours' during the 14th and 15th centuries. The Citadel, Calais Calais Citadel dominates the area West of the town, between Fort Risban and Fort Nieully.
It dates back to the 16th Century, but has undergone many alterations in its long history, the majority of which were those implemented by the French military engineer Vauban.
Eustache de Saint-Pierre ceremonially led the Six Burghers of Calais - the city’s notables - to hand out the keys of their city to Edward III. Rodin immortalised this spectacular historical event with an equally spectacular sculptural group.
Citadel of Calais is situated 2½ km west of Calais. However, for most French, Calais is primarily a name that evokes the Hundred Years War. Citadel of Calais in Calais, France (Google Maps) After the French recapture, Calais was on the frontier, only a short distance from the Spanish-held stronghold of Gravelines. Continuará el viaje a Londres, comenzando un recorrido a pie que pasa por las principales atracciones que incluyen: Big Ben , la Casa del Parlamento , la Abadía de Westminster , 10 Downing Street , Whitehall , St James 'Park , el Palacio de Buckingham y el río Támesis.
¿Qué restaurantes hay cerca de La Citadelle?
Construction work began in 1910, was stopped during WWI and resumed in 1920. Al final del viaje, será conducido de regreso a París. This French king, whose kingdom was limited to a few provinces, obviously saw them as a threat. Vauban, the military engineer of Louis XIV, carried out the most extensive reconstruction works a century later. Department of Pas-de-Calais While the economy of Calais is essentially linked to its fishing and passenger ports, that of Saint Pierre has traditionally been linked to the making of lace known as dentelle de Calais.
It was designed by engineer Francisco Xavier Esteves. Saliendo de París, lo llevarán al Puerto de Calais y llegará al Puerto de Dover cruzando el Canal de la Mancha. The spire is topped by a weather vane in the shape of a dragon. It's absolutely free, easy, and doesn't even need registration! They humbly went barefoot, dressed with a shirt and a noose tied around their neck, ready to sacrifice their own life in order to save the inhabitants.
Después de dejar Londres, nuestro entrenador lo llevará a la reconocida institución educativa de la nación: la Universidad de Cambridge para experimentar el fuerte ambiente académico. The original now stands in front of the city hall in Calais. Calais, France The Citadel of Calais was built between 1560 and 1571 on the site of a former medieval castle which was built in 1229 by Philippe de Hureprel. Finishing the facade are squared plaits surmounted by three decorated pinnacles, with two pilasters on either side, topped by pinnacles of equal design. Calais became definitively attached to the Kingdom of France. He then commissioned the star architects of the time, Castriotto and Jean Errard, with the construction of the citadel. The fortifications were enlarged during the 17th century, and the city transformed into a gigantic fortress with a military port. He arrived in front of the citadel of Calais on September 4, 1346. Aparcamiento gratuito que era bueno, un corto paseo por el interior de las puertas de encontrar. .
It's equally convenient as the train exits in the peripheral district of Coquelle, near the huge commercial centre Cité Europe. Olvídate de este lugar para mantener su tiempo, nada especial para ser visitado puedes encontrar lugares mejores en Calais, pero no Citadel, Precioso edificio, pero falla en la información histórica, Parece una estructura realmente increíble ya que en coche. Continuará el viaje a Londres, comenzando un recorrido a pie que pasa por las principales atracciones que incluyen: Big Ben , la Casa del Parlamento , la Abadía de Westminster , 10 Downing Street , Whitehall , St James 'Park , el Palacio de Buckingham y el río Támesis. The situation worsened when Henry II became king after marrying Eleanor, who brought him the Duchy of Aquitaine in her dowry. Why not share it with other people interested in history? The city is also known for its magnificent city hall belfry, classified as World Heritage by UNESCO on April 28, 2008. Both gates were classified Historical Monuments in 1939. Above this arch are three elongated rectangular windows flanked by two painted figures representing 'Art' and 'Science' (work of Professor Jose Bielman).
All rights reserved. These include the 16th century Porte de Boulogne and the 17th century Porte de la Ville, also known as Porte de l’Hermitage.
The Citadel, Calais, 1940 - HistoryHome />Citadel History />Brief History
(This brief history was developed by The Citadel Alumni Association History Committee, Spring 2007.)
Table of Contents
John Milton, in his Tractate on Education, described a complete education one that prepares the individual to perform justly, skillfully, and magnanimously, all offices both public and private, of peace and war. 1 This is the essence of a Citadel education. Since its inception in 1842, The Citadel has sought to prepare its graduates intellectually, physically and morally to be principled leaders and productive citizens in all walks of life.
In 1843, the first Board of Visitors of the Citadel Academy reported to the Governor and General Assembly of South Carolina on the system of education it had devised for Cadets as follows:
The Citadel of the 21st Century remains true to this vision, instilling in Cadets the core values of integrity, honesty, and responsibility in a disciplined academic environment, thereby preparing its graduates to understand their obligations as citizens, and to become principled leaders in whatever their chosen field of endeavor
Citadel graduates have participated in many of the pivotal events in our nation's history, and have fought in every American war since the Mexican War of 1846 3 . Alumni have achieved prominence in such diverse fields as military and government service, science and engineering, education, literature, business, the medical and legal professions, and theology. The Citadel's legacy of service to the State of South Carolina and our Nation is a tradition of which its founding fathers would be justly proud.
Origins of The Citadel
The original site of The Citadel was on what is now Marion Square in the City of Charleston. During the Revolutionary War, a fortification known as a "Horn works" was established in the vicinity of Marion Square. In 1783, this site was transferred to the City upon its incorporation as a municipality. Six years later a small portion of this tract was transferred back to the state for use as a tobacco inspection site. The City retained the remainder of the land known as the Citadel Green which was used as a muster site for militia units. In 1822, the South Carolina Legislature passed an "Act to Establish a Competent Force to Act as a Municipal Guard for the Protection of the City of Charleston and its vicinity." The act provided that a suitable building be erected for the deposit of the arms of the State, and a guard house. 4
Prominent Charleston architect Frederick Wesner designed the building that was to become known as the Citadel, but it was not until 1829 that the structure was erected on the square. Wesner's design, a two story Romanesque structure, incorporated an interior courtyard with Doric columns and Roman arches. It is speculated that Wesner's design was inspired by the Jacques-Louis David painting, The Oath of the Horatii. 5
At the request of the State of South Carolina, troops from the federal garrison at Ft. Moultrie became the first guard of the new state arsenal on January 8, 1830. 6 Federal troops were withdrawn on December 24, 1832, as a result of tensions between the federal government and South Carolina over federally imposed tariffs. State militia at the Charleston powder magazine were then detailed to guard the state arsenal at the Citadel. 7 During the next ten years several smaller arsenals around the state were consolidated at the Citadel in Charleston and at the Arsenal in Columbia, and placed under the guard of two companies of State militia known as the Arsenal and Magazine Guard. 8
Governor John P. Richardson first conceived of converting the Arsenal in Columbia and the Citadel in Charleston into military academies. This was accomplished by act of the State Legislature on December 20, 1842. In his message to the State Legislature in 1842, the Governor spoke eloquently of the purpose to be served by converting the State's arsenals to educational purposes:
The two academies, formally named "the Citadel Academy," and "the Arsenal Academy," were originally established as separate institutions governed by a common Board of Visitors. However, in 1845, the Arsenal Academy was made auxiliary to the Citadel Academy and accepted only first year Cadets, who would transfer to The Citadel to complete their education. 10 On March 20, 1843, the first Cadets reported to The Citadel on Marion Square. This date is celebrated today as "Corps Day" the official anniversary of the formation of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets. 11
The Citadel Prior to the Civil War
The regulations adopted by the Board of Visitors for the Citadel and the Arsenal military academies provided for an equal number of "Beneficiary Cadets" and Pay Cadets, to be selected from each of the 29 judicial districts of the State based on their academic qualifications, moral character, and fitness for military service. In adopting the system of military education and discipline for the academies, the Board of Visitors undoubtedly adopted many of the regulations in effect at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. 12 However, in developing the academic course of instruction for cadets, the Board had much more latitude and endeavored to provide Cadets with as broad an education as possible, both scientific and practical, to prepare them for leadership roles beyond military service. 13
Compared to the more classically focused universities of the day, the practical education provided at the Citadel and Arsenal Academies was unique for its time. During a Cadet's four years at the Citadel Academy, he would undertake a demanding course of academic study in addition to his military training and duties. This course of instruction included the following subjects: Modern History, Geography, English Grammar, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, French, Bookkeeping, Descriptive Geometry, Rhetoric, Moral and Natural Philosophy, Architecture, Civil and Military Engineering, the Science of War, Topographical Drawing, Chemistry, Physics, Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, Constitutional Law, and the Laws of Nations. In addition, Cadets would be schooled in the military arts, including Artillery, Evolutions of the Line, and Duties of non-commissioned and commissioned Officers. 14
The first class of Cadets graduated from the Citadel Academy on November 20, 1846, with 6 Cadets receiving diplomas. Charles Courtenay Tew was First Honor Graduate. Tew would become a professor at the Citadel Academy and later establish the Hillsboro North Carolina Military Academy. During the Civil War, Tew was commissioned an officer in the Confederate Army and rose to the rank of Colonel. He was killed on the eve of his promotion to brigadier general at the battle of Sharpsburg on September 17th 1862, while commanding the 2d Regiment, N.C. State Troops. 15
Also during 1846, the Citadel Academy undertook its first military training exercises to assist America to prepare for war. The 1st South Carolina's Volunteer Infantry also known as the Palmetto Regiment, took its training in military drill and arms from Citadel Cadets in Charleston prior to departing for the Mexican War. 16 William J. Magill, a member of the first class to graduate from the Citadel in 1846, served with distinction as a lieutenant in the 3d U.S. Dragoons under General Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War. Magill later served as Commandant and professor of mathematics at Georgia Military Institute, and during the Civil War served in the First Georgia Regiment rising quickly to the rank of Colonel before being seriously wounded at the battle of Sharpsburg. 17
Life as a Cadet at the Citadel Academy was Spartan and demanding with little time for idle pursuits. A typical day would begin at 0600 hrs (6AM) and end at 2130 hrs (9:30PM) during the winter months, and at 2230 hrs (10:30PM) when the days were longer. Academic classes and military drill and duties took up most of the day, with evenings devoted to study. Saturdays were reserved for inspections. From March 1 until December 1, there was infantry or artillery drill each day except Saturdays and Sundays. On Saturdays, in addition to room inspection, there was inspection under arms, and on Sunday attendance at church services was mandatory. 18
The Association of Graduates (now named The Citadel Alumni Association), was organized at a meeting at the Citadel on November 19, 1852. Charles C. Tew Class of 1846, was elected as its first President, and John P. Thomas Class of 1851, its first Secretary. The Association of Graduates was destined to play a pivotal role in securing the return of The Citadel to State authorities after its confiscation and occupation by federal troops at the end of the Civil War. 19
Prior to the institution of athletics, debate and oratory among literary societies were the main form of competitive activity and relaxation among college students. At the Citadel, two literary societies were formed in the 1840s. The Calliopean society was formed in 1845, and drew its members primarily from the low country of the state. The Polytechnic society was formed in 1847, and drew its members mostly from the upstate. 20 The rivalry between these two societies was great and reportedly their debates were often acrimonious. The societies each occupied well appointed halls within the Citadel itself, and one of the early honors at the military academy was to be elected as President of one of the societies, a position reserved for members of the First or senior Class. 21
On February 22, 1857, a standard of colors was presented to the Corps of Cadets on the occasion of the Washington Light Infantry's semi-centennial celebration in Charleston. 22 This elegant flag is composed of a field of blue Lyons silk, displaying on one side the arms of the State of South Carolina and the name "South Carolina Military Academy" with date 1857, and on the other side an elaborate wreath of oak leaves, enfolding the inscription - Fort Moultrie, Cowpens, King's Mountain, Eutaw Springs, and below this "Our Heritage." 23 The flag served as the Corps of Cadet's battle flag throughout the Civil War. After the Civil War, the flag was safely preserved by John P. Thomas, Class of 1851, and returned to the Corps upon its reformation when the college was reopened in 1882. For many years the flag was borne by the Corps of Cadets color guard as the battalion colors during parades. It is now on display in The Citadel museum. 24
The Citadel and the South Carolina Corps of Cadets during the Civil War
On December 20, 1860, South Carolina formally seceded from the Union, setting the stage for the great civil war that was to follow. In organizing its military units to prepare for war, the South Carolina General Assembly on January 28, 1861, combined the Corps of Cadets at the Citadel and Arsenal into the Battalion of State Cadets and designated the two institutions as The South Carolina Military Academy. The Battalion of State Cadets was made a part of the military organization of the State. 25
During the War, the Arsenal and Citadel continued to operate as military academies, however, classes were often disrupted when the governor called the cadets into military service. Even before January 28, however, the Citadel Academy, its officers and Cadets were called on to perform military duties. A laboratory at the Citadel was set aside for the manufacture of ammunition, 26 and on January 9, 1861, Citadel Cadets manning an artillery battery on Morris Island fired the first hostile shots of the Civil War, repulsing the federal steamship Star of the West, carrying supplies and two hundred federal troops dispatched by President Buchanan to reinforce Union Forces garrisoned at Fort Sumter. 27 During the Star of the West incident, the Cadets flew as their banner a unique flag, observed by eye witnesses on the federal steamer, and described in a dispatch by a Union Officer at Fort Sumter as "a flag with a red field, and a white palmetto tree." 28 A depiction of this flag flying over the Cadet battery on Morris Island can be seen in the Star of the West mural in Daniel Library, and replicas of the flag are now used as the spirit flag of The Citadel Corps of Cadets, known affectionately as "Big Red." 29
During April 12 - 13, 1861, Confederate artillery batteries in Charleston harbor and Union forces occupying Fort Sumter exchanged fire culminating in Fort Sumter's surrender on April 13. Officers of the Citadel were directly involved in establishing artillery positions and directing fire on Fort Sumter. 30 There are few surviving records of Cadets direct involvement in the Fort Sumter bombardment. It is known, however, that many Cadets were in Charleston at the time, and some attached themselves to various military units manning harbor batteries when the bombardment began on April 12. 31 Although most Cadets were officially on leave following the April 9 commencement of the graduating class, a number of Cadets returned to the academy when learning of the bombardment, and were ordered to White Point Gardens to take charge of five, six and twelve pound cannon located at the extreme eastern promenade of the Battery. 32
During the Civil War, mounting and manning heavy guns, guard duty and escorting prisoners were among the military duties most frequently performed by Cadets. Early in the war, Cadets were called upon to train raw recruits in newly formed military units. 33 Cadets traveled as far north as Virginia to conduct training of troops at the front lines. 34 However, members of the Corps of Cadets and its officers actively participated in several campaigns and engagements in defense of Charleston and South Carolina during the War. The regimental colors of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets carries eight battle streamers and one service streamer for the following campaigns and engagements by the Corps of Cadets 35 :
Star of the West, January 9, 1861
Wappoo Cut, November 1861
James Island, June 1862
Charleston and Vicinity, July to October 1863
James Island, June 1864
Tulifinny, December 1864
James Island, December 1864 to February 1865
Williamston, May 1865
Confederate States Army
The engagement at Tulifinny Creek is of historic importance because it involved the deployment of the entire Battalion of State Cadets from the Citadel and Arsenal Academies as an independent military unit engaged in armed combat with Union forces. In December of 1864, the Governor of South Carolina ordered the Battalion of State Cadets from the Citadel and Arsenal to deploy to Tulifinny Creek south of Charleston to reinforce Confederate troops defending a key railroad bridge against a much larger advancing Union force. On December 7, the Battalion of State Cadets, along with Confederate militia units from North and South Carolina and Georgia, engaged a much larger Union force in pitched battle for several hours, advancing against rifle and cannon fire and forcing the federal troops back to their entrenchments. On December 9, the battalion of cadets successfully repulsed a Union counter-attack on their defensive position by the railroad trestle with their disciplined rifle fire. 36 The Battalion of State Cadets suffered eight casualties in the engagement, including one killed, 37 and were commended by Major General Samuel Jones, CSA, Commanding General of South Carolina and Georgia Departments, for their gallantry under fire. 38 A mural depicting the December 9th engagement at the Tulifinny Creek railroad trestle is on display in the Daniel Library.
A large number of Cadets left the academies to join the War. Among these were a group of Citadel and Arsenal Cadets who left the academies in June of 1862 to form a cavalry unit known as the Cadet Rangers. The Cadet Rangers became part of the 6th Regiment, South Carolina Cavalry, 39 and were of incalculable assistance in training the Regiment's officers and non-commissioned officers. They took part in several engagements along the South Carolina coast before deploying to Virginia in 1864. 40 The Rangers are best known for their participation in the battle of Trevilian Station, Virginia, considered the largest and bloodiest engagement of Union and Confederate cavalry during the Civil War. 41 A mural depicting the Cadet Ranger's successful cavalry charge at Trevilian Station under the command of General Wade Hampton, is on display in Daniel Library.
On February 18, 1865, the Citadel ceased operation as a military academy when Union troops captured Charleston and occupied the Citadel building and grounds. The Citadel remained confiscated property of the federal government for nearly 17 years, and was used as a garrison by federal troops. 42 The Arsenal in Columbia was burned by General Sherman's army, and never reopened.
During the War, twelve members of the Battalion of State Cadets were killed or died as a result of wounds or illness suffered in the field. 43 In addition, 4 members of the Cadet Rangers were killed in military service. 44 Of some 224 graduates living during the Civil War, 209 served in the Confederate armed forces, all but 29 as commissioned officers. 4 graduates attained the rank of general, and 19 attained the rank of full colonel. 36 graduates were killed in action or died from wounds on the battlefield. Another 13 died from wounds or disease while in military service. Some 200 former Cadets who had not graduated are known to have died in military service during the Civil War. 45
The Recovery and Reopening of The Citadel
Federal troops were garrisoned at the Citadel from the fall of Charleston in February of 1865 until 1879. 46 Although the State made attempts to recover possession of the Citadel from the federal government, its recovery and reopening as a college, were to take many years, and is due primarily to the unfailing efforts of the Association of Graduates. 47
In December of 1877, alumni of the Citadel Academy met in Charleston to reconstitute the Association of Graduates. Brigadier General Johnson Hagood, Class of 1847, who would later become Governor of South Carolina (1880 - 1882), was elected President of the Association. Under Hagood's leadership, the Association undertook a successful campaign to gain general public and political support for reopening of the Citadel as an educational institution. In 1878, Governor Wade Hampton appointed a new of Board of Visitors for the Citadel, with General Hagood as Chairman, and five regular members, all of whom were graduates of the Citadel Academy. 48 This Board of Visitors was to take responsible charge of the movement to recover and reopen the Citadel. 49
On January 29, 1882, the Secretary of War ordered the commanding officer of the federal Military District of South Carolina to evacuate the Citadel, 50 and on January 31, 1882, the South Carolina General Assembly passed "AN ACT to authorize the Re-opening of the South Carolina Military Academy." 51 After seventeen years, the Citadel was once again under the control of the State and the Board of Visitors.
On October 2, 1882 one hundred eighty-nine cadets reported to the reopened Citadel. Colonel John P. Thomas, Class of 1851, who had headed the Arsenal Academy during the Civil War, was appointed Superintendent. 52 The 1882 Act authorizing the reopening of the Citadel, continued the practice of competitive appointments for deserving young men from the several counties in the state who were referred to as "beneficiary" or scholarship Cadets, as well as providing for the enrolling of pay Cadets. However, the 1882 Act established for the first time the requirement that after graduation, beneficiary Cadets teach for two years in the free public schools of the County from which they received their appointment to the Academy. 53
Colonel Thomas and the Board of Visitors established the same strict system of military and academic discipline for the Citadel Academy as before the war. In doing so, they were careful to delineate that the aim of the military system was to further scholastic achievement and produce men who were equal at once to civil and military achievements. Military discipline was not be used to compel mechanical obedience to a rigid code, but to impress upon Cadets ethical propositions and the high thought of duty and responsibility. 54
Rebirth and Growth of The Citadel
In 1882, in anticipation of the reopening of the Citadel, the Charleston City Counsel acted to gain control of the spacious grounds in front of the Citadel with a view of converting the entire square into a parade ground and public mall. This grand idea of a military plaza resulted in the creation of Marion Square. 55 By act of the State Legislature the historic Citadel Green in front of the Citadel on Marion Square, was permanently preserved as a place for military exercises, with the proviso that the Corps of Cadets of the State Military Academy would likewise have the right to use the Citadel Green for military exercises and recreation. 56
In 1890, the office of Commandant of Cadets was created and Lieutenant John A. Towers, 1st U. S. Artillery, USA, was detailed by the United States Army to the Citadel to become the Citadel Academy's first Commandant of Cadets. 57
In 1898, America went to war against Spain. Seventeen Citadel graduates served with volunteer regiments in the Spanish-American War, and the first South Carolina unit to be mustered in was commanded by Captain Edward Anderson, Class of 1886. 58 Another five graduates served with the Regular Army. 59
In 1900, in recognition of the high academic standards maintained at the Citadel, the South Carolina General Assembly granted the Board of Visitors authority to award the bachelor of science degree to graduates. 60
By 1910 enrollment at the Citadel had steadily increased to 242 Cadets, bringing the Citadel to full capacity. 61 In order to accommodate the large number of Cadets and officers, the General Assembly approved construction of a fourth story to the Citadel which was completed in 1911. 62 Believing the term "academy" was no longer appropriate for a college level institution, the General Assembly accepted the recommendation of the Board of Visitors to change the Academy's name to "The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina." 63 Also in 1910, the General Assembly granted the Board of Visitors the authority to award the degree of civil engineer to graduates. 64 This act was in recognition of the strong emphasis on engineering instruction at the college, and the national prominence which many of its alumni had attained in the engineering profession. 65
World War I
On April 8, 1917, Congress declared war on Germany commencing America's entry into World War I. With the approval of the Board of Visitors and Governor of South Carolina, The Citadel offered all of the college's military facilities to help train recruits. 66 The National Defense Act had established the Reserve Officers Training Corps in 1916, and this provided Citadel Cadets and recent graduates a direct opportunity to become officers in the U.S. military. All members of the Class of 1917 entered military service upon graduation, 6 received commissions as officers in the Regular Army, and 13 received commissions as officers in the Marine Corps. 67 Again in 1918, all members of the graduating class entered military service. 68 Citadel graduates volunteered with Allied forces prior to America's entry into the war 69 , were on the first American convoys that sailed off to war on June 13, 1917, and participated and distinguished themselves in most of the major battles of World War I. 70 In all, 316 Citadel graduates served in World War I, 277 as commissioned officers. 71 Six graduates died in the war and 17 were wounded. 72
Move to the Ashley River Campus
Despite numerous building additions, by 1918, enrollment had outgrown the capacity of the Old Citadel on Marion Square. The City of Charleston offered the State a large tract of one hundred seventy six acres adjacent to Hampton Park and along the Ashley River for a new campus 73 . The first main buildings to be completed were the main barracks (Padgett Thomas), the College Building (Bond Hall), Alumni Hall and the Mess Hall (Coward Hall). 74 Although not originally planned or budgeted, a hospital building was among the first buildings completed on campus due to a generous gift from an anonymous citizen of Charleston. 75 The Romanesque style of architecture was followed in constructing the buildings and the use of arches and courtyards replicated those at the old Citadel. 76 According to reports, the corner stone of the College Building was laid on a beautiful Thanksgiving Day, November 25, 1920, by the Grand Mason of South Carolina, in an imposing ceremony that included a parade of 2,200 Masons in their full regalia and an audience of over 5,000, including several hundred alumni. 77
Accreditation and Expansion of the Academic Curriculum 1922-1932
On December 5, 1924, The Citadel's academic credentials reached an important milestone when its application for membership in the Southern Association of Colleges was approved. 78 Other colleges gaining membership in the Southern Association of Colleges on this same date were Furman University and Texas A&M. 79
Until 1916, there were only three majors that Cadets could pursue at The Citadel: civil engineering, the sciences or a literary course. Increased enrollment at the college allowed for the introduction of further elective courses of instruction. In 1924 business administration was added as an elective course, 80 and within a few years, elective courses of study in education and psychology were added, followed by electrical engineering, chemistry, pre-medical chemistry-biology, English, history, social science and modern languages. The first bachelor of arts degree was awarded in 1925. 81
The first homecoming at The Citadel was observed on October 25, 1924, culminating in a football game in which The Citadel Bulldogs were victorious over Furman. 82
Establishment of The Honor Code
The first reference to an honor system at The Citadel was in the 1919 Guidon. It specified that Upperclassmen were subject to the Honor System. The freshmen (or 4th class cadets) at The Citadel, who were known as "Recruits" at that time, were not held to the criteria of the Honor System. This system proved controversial and was dropped in 1925. In 1955, West Point Cadets visiting The Citadel gave a presentation on the Honor System adopted at the United States Military Academy. This drew strong support among the Corps of Cadets, and in September of 1955, the Honor Code was officially adopted for the Corps of Cadets by order of General Mark Clark, then President of The Citadel. 83 The Honor Code states simply that: "a Cadet does not lie, cheat or steal, nor tolerate those who do."
General Charles Pelot Summerall's Presidency of The Citadel
Upon his retirement as Chief of Staff of the United States Army, General Charles Pelot Summerall became the tenth President of The Citadel. General Summerall's distinguished service in the United States Army, dating from the Boxer Rebellion in China to his leadership of the 42d and 1st Divisions and V Corps of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I, established him as one of America's great generals and provided The Citadel with immense national prestige. 84 His leadership of the college during the Great Depression enabled The Citadel to weather the economic depression and remain a vital and growing educational institution. 85 Under General Summerall, the college's campus was greatly expanded to include LeTellier Hall, the Summerall Chapel, Capers Hall, McAlister Field House, Law and Stevens barracks. 86
World War II and the Korean War
During World War II The Citadel and its alumni once more responded to the call of our nation. A higher percentage of its students entered military service than any college in the nation, other than the federal service academies. 87 Even before the United States entered the war, Citadel alumni were serving in the armed forces of allied nations. 88 Of 2,976 living graduates in 1946, 2,927 served their country during the war. Before the end of the war, two hundred seventy-nine Citadel Men had given their lives in defense of our country. 89
During 1941-45, in addition to educating and providing military training for members of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets, The Citadel and its faculty provided specialized screening and training programs for the war effort, matriculating over 10,000 military personnel in such programs as The Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP), the Engineering, Science, and Management War Training Program (ESMWT), the Army Specialized Training and Reassignment Program (ASTRP), and Specialized Training and Reassignment (STAR). 90
In 1950, The Korean War broke out and the United States led the United Nation's military effort to repulse the North Korean invasion of the south. Over 1,500 alumni served in the Korean War with Thirty one alumni paying the ultimate sacrifice for our country. General E. A. Pollock '21, USMC, who would upon retirement become Chairman of The Citadel's Board of Visitors, commanded the 1st Marine Division in Korea and served under General Mark Clark, then Commander in Chief of the United Nations Command. General Clark would upon his retirement from the Army, become President of The Citadel in 1954. 91
General Mark Clark's Presidency
General Mark W. Clark became President of The Citadel in 1954, and served until 1965. Prior to coming to The Citadel, General Clark had had an illustrious military career. Among his numerous Army assignments were serving as commander of the 5th U.S. Army in Italy during World War II and serving as Commander in Chief of the United Nations Command during the Korean War. General Clark's reputation for leadership and his relationships with international dignitaries brought further national and international recognition to The Citadel.
During General Clark's tenure as President, the campus continued to expand to include the Daniel Library and Museum, Mark Clark Hall, Jenkins Hall, the Howie Memorial Carillon, the McCormick Beach House on the Isle of Palms. 92 General Clark is responsible for the formal adoption of the Cadet Honor Code at The Citadel in 1955, 93 and establishing the Greater Issues Series, a program of distinguished speakers. He is also credited with formation of the college's endowment foundation, establishing The Citadel Summer Camp for boys, as well as revitalizing the college's varsity sports programs. 94
The Citadel of the Modern Era
The Citadel's unique educational experience, combining rigorous academic preparation within a disciplined military environment, has continued to keep pace with the changing nature of our society. During the 20th Century, The Citadel established itself as one of the leading undergraduate liberal arts colleges in the Southeast. 95 It has also expanded its academic programs to serve the needs of the South Carolina low country by establishing the undergraduate Evening College in 1966, and Graduate School programs in 1968. 96 Citadel Cadets and graduates have continued to serve our nation bravely, in the tradition of the citizen-soldier, participating in every conflict our nation has faced since the Korean War, including Viet Nam, the Gulf War, Kosovo, and the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq.
During the latter part of the Twentieth Century, The Citadel experienced the same social change that has transformed America in general. The first African American Cadet, entered The Citadel in 1966 and the first women entered the South Carolina Corps of Cadets in 1996. Cadets from many foreign countries have added to the cultural diversity of the Corps of Cadets since the 1920s, when the first Chinese students arrived. These were followed by Cadets from Puerto Rico (prior to its becoming a commonwealth) in the late 1940s, Thai and Taiwanese Cadets in the 1960s and 1970s, and Jordanian and Iranian Cadets in the 1970s. 97 Today, the Citadel's Corps of Cadets represents a rich and diverse group of young men and women from across America and many different foreign countries, intent on preparing themselves to be principled leaders in their chosen fields of endeavor.
The ultimate test of any academic institution is the quality and character of its graduates. Through three different centuries, The Citadel's contribution of leaders to society has been greatly disproportionate to its size. Numerous alumni have served as flag officers in all branches of our uniformed military services. They have served as governors, United States Senators and Congressmen, distinguished jurists, ambassadors, presidents of universities and colleges, prominent theologians, engineers, doctors, lawyers, writers and business executives in many diverse fields of endeavor. The record of Citadel graduates has more than validated the hopes of Governor Richardson in 1842, that the institution he sought to establish would produce useful citizens. At the beginning of the Twenty-First Century, The Citadel continues to stand as a bulwark of Duty, Honor, God and Country, dedicated to producing principled leaders for service to the state of South Carolina, and our nation.
1. John Milton. (1608–1674). Tractate on Education. The Harvard Classics, NEW YORK: P.F. COLLIER & SON COMPANY, 1909–14
2. John Thomas, The History of the South Carolina Military Academy (Charleston, S.C.: Walkers, Evans and Cogswell 1893), p. 43.
3. Thomas, pp 472–473, William H. Buckley, The Citadel and The South Carolina Corps of Cadets (Arcadia Publishing 2004) p.7
6. O. J. Bond, The Story of The Citadel (Richmond, VA Garratt and Massie 1936), p. 7
The Sacrifice Army - Royal Marines in the Rearguard Action At Calais
The Bill Balmer Story (Royal Marine 1939-1953) My Second Battle Calais – Friday 24 to Sunday 26 May 1940 After the Boulogne operation Blue Watch was coming off leave, White Watch was on Coastal Defence and Red Watch was supposed to go on leave. I was in Red Watch and because we were available, we were sent to Calais. As we came down the stairs from our accommodation to ‘Go Ashore’ we were approached by the Sergeant Major, who ordered us to listen out for the ‘General Assembly’ to be announced and to be prepared to muster on the parade ground within two minutes. We asked him what was happening to which he replied that we were going on another trip. ‘By the way’, he added, ‘Go to the Armourer’s shop and sign out your guns’. That was the two Vickers machine guns, tripods and water coolant as well as our personal .45 revolvers. The Sacrifice Army We were known as the ‘Sacrifice Army’ for that operation. Before we left for Calais we knew we were on a lost cause. A young ‘Geordie’ in our squad called Thwaites had been talking to a Brigadier’s daughter. She had overheard her parents talking and she was able to tell us, ‘You will be going to Calais, and you will not be coming back’. The main reason we were sent there was to destroy the Calais harbour installations and reinforce the troops already in position. Unknown to us at that time, Winston Churchill, the wartime Prime Minister, had taken a leading part in planning a series of rearguard actions designed to allow the retreat of the Allied forces at Dunkirk to continue. That Friday ninety-six Royal Marines and four officers headed for Calais on a Royal Naval destroyer
. The officers included Captain Curtis, Lieutenant Bruce, Lieutenant Hunter and the Machine Gun Officer, Lieutenant Scott. The Senior NCOs were Colour Sergeant Reid and Sergeant Mitchell. The Junior NCOs were Corporal Harper and Lance Corporal O’Farran. There were supposed to be some troops from the Royal Ulster Rifles with us but their trip was cancelled. While we were crossing the Channel to Calais, Lieutenant Scott moved around the ship talking to everyone. He came and sat down beside me and started to talk. He said, ’You’re Irish, aren’t you?’ I said I was. He then asked me if I was superstitious and I replied that I wasn’t really. He told me that he was superstitious about some things. When I asked him what superstitions he had he related how a single magpie had flown across the road on the way to the Royal Navy destroyer. Lieutenant Scott was joking with me and had to bite his lip to stop himself from laughing. I told him the Irish also believed that superstition. He finished off by saying, ‘Just keeping you going.’ Before the weekend was up I would mistakenly pronounce him dead. Our first action took place on the way into Calais harbour. Two mortar shells exploded harmlessly above the destroyer on the jetty. Because the jetty was well above us there were no casualties. It did not take us long to disembark from the destroyer after that hot reception. As we were disembarking other troops were boarding. For the next three days there was a constant run of small ships from Calais harbour evacuating the Allied non-combatant troops. The ships never brought in fresh troops after we landed.
The Royal Marines were supposed to meet with French Marines but we never met them. We eventually found them on Sunday morning 26 May 1940 just before we were captured. They were all at the railway station, all drunk with their weapons piled up. The Citadel Despite that setback with the French troops, a British officer was able to direct us, No 1 Gun Team, to a building called The Citadel, which was ideal for fighting from. It was a great vantage point, over three stories high. It had also been severely damaged during the fighting and was full of debris. This gave us good cover from enemy fire. The Royal Air Force (RAF) had a transport pool at the Citadel. The Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) and the Queen’s Regiment had established a hospital within the Citadel. The roof of the Citadel was full of rubbish and debris from earlier battles. Our gun team NCO, Colour Sergeant Reid, thought this was ideal, just as long as we didn’t look up or move when the German aircraft flew over our position. The white of our faces would have given our positions away. The German spotter planes were constantly passing overhead and we used the rubbish to camouflage our position. Colour Sergeant Reid made sure we kept our heads and feet covered at all times. The other machine gun team was behind our position to our left. We could hear the machine gun firing but such was the confusion no one told us it was our other team. I had a very busy forty hours at Calais before we surrendered to the Germans. No sleep, hardly anything to eat or drink. ‘Geordie’ and myself worked a four-hour shift behind the gun but there was little respite for the two days. The lucky soldiers were those posted near or in the convent. They were well looked after by the nuns whereas we were isolated on the Citadel for the battle. Our main task in the Citadel was to observe a gap in the battlements where the railway line entered the old city. That was over 600 yards from our location. We had to stop German foot soldiers and vehicles from gaining access to the harbour through that point. The Germans were waiting there to break through, but we were successful in stopping them for two days. If the Germans managed to get through that gap they would have overwhelmed our troops in the harbour. As soon as we saw any movement on the other side of the railway lines we would fire a five or six round burst to keep them back. As soon as I saw any movement I would kick ‘Geordie’ awake and fire the gun. It was his job to reload the gun when necessary. We were sleeping rough because sleeping bags had yet to be issued to fighting troops in those early days. I saw many horrible sights at Calais. Men were blown to bits by Stuka bombs, artillery fire and mortar fire. The worst scene I witnessed was No.2 Gun Team and a rifle section of ten Royal Marines twelve young men or should I say boys, blown to bits by a bomb from a Stuka. On another occasion Geordie and myself had to deliver a message to the railway station. We watched two soldiers coming along the track towards us. Then we heard a mortar shell being fired in our direction so we flattened ourselves to the platform. When we looked up the two soldiers were gone, just bits of uniform lying where they had been. When you see people killed in front of you, that’s when your training kicks in and you do what you were trained to do. Ping That Sunday morning on 26 May 1940 at about 8 am, Colour Sergeant Reid said to me, ‘I’ve made a cup of tea. And there’s a cup sitting there for you. I will take over the gun’. I stood up and walked over to get the cup of tea. As I stood up I heard a ‘ping’ and thought little of it. The Colour Sergeant said to me later, ‘You were lucky. A bullet hit the gun just after you stood up and walked away’. Sure enough the bullet had hit one of the tripod legs. If I had been lying behind the gun the bullet would have caught me between the shoulders. No soldier likes to be shot in the back. We always thought that anyone shot in the back was either running away or doing something they should not have been doing. Stretching Our Legs Later that morning the Machine Gun Officer came to the Citadel and told ‘Geordie’ and myself that we needed to stretch our legs after being in position for nearly two days. There were stories circulating that German snipers had infiltrated close to our positions. Because of that we were tasked to go to the railway station and locate Sergeant Mitchell who was in charge of a rifle section there. Eventually we found Sergeant Mitchell and gave him the message. He had to take his rifle section and search the ground to his front before the machine gun teams moved forward. Sergeant Mitchell said, ‘I want the organ grinder not the two monkeys’. We had a few choice words with him and returned to the officer with the message. Sergeant Mitchell (G) shifted his position after that meeting and we never met him again to re-task him. The Last Stand For the last stand we had moved from our gun position on the Citadel to the sand dunes on the Dunkirk side of the town. We were located four hundred yards from Calais, overlooking the town. We had to street fight all the way there. I was carrying the tripod for the Vickers gun, another Marine carried the barrel and a third Marine carried the water container of coolant for the gun. Across the channel lay the town of Dover, freedom so near and yet so far. We had nothing but a very uncertain future, not really comprehending what lay ahead. We believed that our defence of Calais had engaged the Germans troops and allowed the Dunkirk evacuation to continue. Lieutenant Scott Later, two stretcher-bearers came to ‘Geordie’ and myself and asked us to identify a dead Royal Marine officer. We went with them and identified the officer as Lieutenant Scott, our Machine Gun Officer. We took his ‘dog tags’ (Identification discs) and pay book and then returned to Colour Sergeant Reid, our section commander. But Lieutenant Scott was not dead, just badly injured. Later on, after we were captured, the German stretcher-bearers came across him and moved him into hospital where he recovered. Captured We were taken prisoner by German infantry at 4 pm on Sunday afternoon on the 26 May 1940. The Colour Sergeant had just taken a phone call on the field telephone. He said, ‘We are going to surrender. They have asked for a senior officer to go forward with a white flag and surrender. Destroy your guns’. An army officer then told a Sergeant to take a white flag and stand on a hill. The Sergeant refused and had to be ordered again. He stood up, drew his gun and said, ‘Death before dishonour’. And then the Sergeant shot himself dead with one shot to the head from his own .45 revolver. Another Sergeant was ordered to raise the white flag and did so. The German troops were now swarming around us. A young German officer who was as broad as he was tall approached us. As he did so we were busy destroying the gun. My mate ‘Geordie’ Thwaites said, ‘Paddy, I don’t know how to pray. Say a prayer for me.’ I replied that I had already said it. ‘What did you say?’ he asked. I replied ‘God help us.’ He asked, ‘Is that enough?’ ‘I think so.’ I replied. The German officer said something to us in German. We did not understand him and he repeated himself, but this time he spoke in perfect English. We said to him, ‘Why didn’t you say that in the first place?’ We learned that he had been educated in Cambridge before the war. He then asked us what regiment we belonged to and we refused to answer him. He then told us we were in the Royal Marines because he recognised the buttons on our tunics. He then asked us if we knew what the Germans did to Royal Marines. We replied that we did not know so he informed us that we would be shot. A rare sense of humour indeed! After talking to us for a while he returned to the German lines.
Top Historic Sights in Calais, France
Angelokastro is a Byzantine castle on the island of Corfu. It is located at the top of the highest peak of the island"s shoreline in the northwest coast near Palaiokastritsa and built on particularly precipitous and rocky terrain. It stands 305 m on a steep cliff above the sea and surveys the City of Corfu and the mountains of mainland Greece to the southeast and a wide area of Corfu toward the northeast and northwest.
Angelokastro is one of the most important fortified complexes of Corfu. It was an acropolis which surveyed the region all the way to the southern Adriatic and presented a formidable strategic vantage point to the occupant of the castle.
Angelokastro formed a defensive triangle with the castles of Gardiki and Kassiopi, which covered Corfu"s defences to the south, northwest and northeast.
The castle never fell, despite frequent sieges and attempts at conquering it through the centuries, and played a decisive role in defending the island against pirate incursions and during three sieges of Corfu by the Ottomans, significantly contributing to their defeat.
During invasions it helped shelter the local peasant population. The villagers also fought against the invaders playing an active role in the defence of the castle.
The exact period of the building of the castle is not known, but it has often been attributed to the reigns of Michael I Komnenos and his son Michael II Komnenos. The first documentary evidence for the fortress dates to 1272, when Giordano di San Felice took possession of it for Charles of Anjou, who had seized Corfu from Manfred, King of Sicily in 1267.
From 1387 to the end of the 16th century, Angelokastro was the official capital of Corfu and the seat of the Provveditore Generale del Levante, governor of the Ionian islands and commander of the Venetian fleet, which was stationed in Corfu.
The governor of the castle (the castellan) was normally appointed by the City council of Corfu and was chosen amongst the noblemen of the island.
Angelokastro is considered one of the most imposing architectural remains in the Ionian Islands.
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The surviving fortifications were all damaged in the Second World War, but substantial remains can be seen today. Of the town's defences and the sea forts, nothing remains above ground, although a canal follows the line of the ditch surrounding the town.
Calais citadel was shelled by the British navy during the Second World War, destroying the north wall and all the internal buildings. The fortifications are mostly intact and in good condition. The citadel now houses a stadium and is open to visit for free most days.
In 1940, the French garrison of Fort Nieulay heroically struggled against the nazi advance to delay the fall of Calais. The fort was heavily damaged in this action, but it has recently been restored and can be visited for free (afternoons only).
Most of the internal buildings were destroyed in the War, but the powder magazine has been restored and holds an exhibition on the history of the fort. The walls themselves are in good condition, apart from the outworks, which are only earthworks today.
Restoration work has recently been carried out at Fort Risban, and the landward part of the fortifications now appear as they did after Vauban's modifications. A sailing club uses the inside of the fort today, but there is access to all the fortifications.
On the seaward side, there are the remains of a small bunker built by the nazis. To the north of Fort Nieulay are the remains of a small square earthwork redoubt called the Gloriette Redoubt. Although it is not a spectacular fortification, it is remarkable for being a rare survivor of a once-common defence work.
The main train station, Calais Ville, lies just to the south of the citadel and the ferry port, for those arriving from the UK, is opposite Fort Risban. Fort Risban and Fort Nieulay are both within 10 minutes walk of the citadel. All three can be visited free of charge.
Preserved Natural Spaces All Around
With its 23 km of coastline, rugged cliffs, breathtakingly diverse terrain and coastal villages, the Grand site des Deux-Caps (Cap Gris-Nez and Cap Blanc-Nez) is an emblematic area of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. It was the first in France to be classified as a National Grand Site.
These vast natural landscapes are conducive to walks and adventure. Whether on foot, bike or horseback, and even in the water along the coast, sport adepts and Sunday strollers alike will undoubtedly find a route (or many!) to explore.
On the Opal Coast's great beaches, it's also possible to partake in any number of water activity : windsurfing, sailing, kite surfing. Sport enthusiasts won't be disappointed here !
Having been to Montreuil many times, we have never visited the citadel.
Entry is reasonably priced and it is quite interesting even for children to walk around although there are many towers which all become a bit samey after a while.
It was fun to see the preparations for Les Misérables being set up but some of the buildings were being used to house the set and props so we didn’t get to see everything we could have.
Well worth a visit though.
The ramparts at Montreuil make for a lovely stroll in the morning or evening but the Citadel is a surprising bonus if you get the times right. We visited when the local ornothologist group was observing the swallow migration, not really our thing but the museum below was fascinating with it's insight into the local history during WW1.
To top it off the charming lady at the the reception offered us a cup of tasty pumpkin soup at the end of our tour.