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Venus and Adonis (Rubens, 1635)
In 1635, Peter Paul Rubens created Venus and Adonis, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. He followed the mythological story in the Metamorphoses by Ovid, inspired from his love of classical literature and earlier depictions of this scene.  This oil on canvas painting shows Venus accompanied by Cupid, embracing and pulling Adonis before he goes off to hunt. The artist uses specific colors, detail and strong contrast between light and dark to depict a dramatic and emotional scene. At the time Rubens created the painting, the mythological story of Venus and Adonis was popular in Renaissance and Baroque court art. Rubens was clearly inspired by the many existing depictions of this scene, in particular the famous Titian composition of the same name, of which there are numerous versions. This depicts the same moment of Adonis leaving Venus to hunt, despite her pleas to stay. He is killed later in the day.
In Athens, the Adonia took place annually,  and was organised and celebrated by women. It was one of a number of Athenian festivals which were celebrated solely by women and addressed sexual or reproductive subjects – others included the Thesmophoria, Haloa, and Skira.  Unlike these other festivals, however, the Adonia was not state-organised, or part of the official state calendar of religious celebration,  and prostitutes as well as respectable women celebrated the Adonia. 
Over the course of the festival, Athenian women took to the rooftops of their houses. They danced, sang, and ritually mourned the death of Adonis. They planted "Gardens of Adonis" – lettuce and fennel seeds, planted in potsherds – which sprouted before withering and dying. After the rooftop celebrations, the women descended to the streets with these Gardens of Adonis, and small images of the god they then conducted a mock funeral procession, before ritually burying the images and the remains of the gardens at sea or in springs.  The rites observed during the festival are not otherwise paralleled in ancient Greek religion like Adonis himself they probably originated in the Near East. 
The date of the Adonia at Athens is uncertain, with ancient sources contradicting one another. Aristophanes, in his Lysistrata, has the festival take place in the early spring of 415 BC, when the Sicilian Expedition was proposed Plutarch puts the festival on the eve of the expedition's setting sail, in midsummer that year.  Theophrastus' Enquiry into Plants (Περι φυτων ιστορια) and Plato's Phaedrus are both often taken as evidence for the Adonia having been celebrated in the summer.  In Egypt and Syria in the Roman period, the Adonia coincided with the rising of the star Sirius in late July. As the Sicilian Expedition sailed in June 415, this contradicts both Aristophanes' and Plutarch's dating of the Adonia the Athenian Adonia must have been celebrated at a different time. 
Modern scholars disagree on which of these sources is correct. Many agree with Plutarch, and put the festival around midsummer, though Dillon argues that Aristophanes' placement of the festival near the beginning of spring is "without question" correct.  Some scholars, such as James Fredal, suggest that there was in fact no fixed date for the Adonia to be celebrated. 
Gardens of Adonis Edit
The main feature of the festival at Athens were the "Gardens of Adonis",  broken pieces of terracotta which had lettuce and fennel seeds sown in them.  These seeds sprouted, but soon withered and died.  Though most scholars say that these gardens withered due to being exposed to the heat of the summer,  Dillon, who believes that the Adonia was held in the spring, says that the plants instead failed because they could not take root in the shallow soil held by the terracotta shards.  In support of this, he cites Diogenianus,  who says that in the Gardens of Adonis, seedlings "wither quickly because they have not taken root".  In ancient Greece, the phrase "Gardens of Adonis" was used proverbially to refer to something "trivial and wasteful". 
Outside of Athens, a celebration of Adonis is attested in Hellenistic Alexandria, in Theocritus' 15th Idyll. The festival described by Theocritus, unlike the one celebrated in Athens, was a cult with state patronage.  It included an annual competition between women singing dirges for Adonis.  Rites lamenting the death of Adonis are also attested in Argos in the second century AD: the Greek geographer Pausanias describes the women of Argos mourning Adonis' death at a shrine inside the temple of Zeus Soter.  Also in the second century, On the Syrian Goddess, attributed to Lucian, describes an Adonia celebrated in Byblos. There is no mention of Gardens of Adonis at this festival, but ritual prostitution and mystery rites are involved in the celebrations. Laurialan Reitzammer argues that the festival described by Lucian is one that was brought back to Syria from Greece, rather than being of native Syrian origin. 
Discover the myth of Adonis and Aphrodite
The incestuous birth of Adonis
It is said that Adonis was born of the illicit union between King Theias of Smyrna and his daughter Myrrha. Urged on by Aphrodite herself, the goddess of beauty, love and sexual desire, who had been offended when King Theias forgot to make a sacrifice for her, Myrrha had made amorous advances towards her father but he was successfully keeping her away. One night, she managed to lure her father out into the open and there under cover of darkness she laid with him.
As dawn broke, Theias discovered to his utter disgust the deception of his daughter and with sword in hand chased her into the wild, wanting to punish her for her audacity. Sensing Myrrha's necessity, Aphrodite transformed her into a tree, the myrrh tree. Still in anger, Theias shot an arrow into the tree trunk, splitting it wide open and it was from there that Adonis was born, the child of an awful union between a father and his daughter.
Raised up by two mothers
Baby Adonis was adorable beyond words and since there was no one to look after him, Aphrodite took him under her wing. So obsessed was she with him that she began neglecting her duties as a goddess. As a remedial measure, she sent the child to be looked after by Persephone, the Queen of the Dead in the Underworld. It was also a move to keep him away from interfering eyes.
However, Persephone, too, fell dearly in love with Adonis and refused to give him up when Aphrodite came for him. There was a bitter argument and Zeus had to intervene to prevent a disastrous argument between the two. He decided that every year Adonis would spend 4 months first with Persephone, the next 4 months with Aphrodite and the last 4 months he would be left alone, so that he may learn to look after himself.
Adonis grew up to be a very handsome young man and one look at him could make every woman's heart excited with desire. That excited was also the heart of goddess Aphodite, who was extremely charmed at this young man. Adonis loved the great outdoors and was a master of the hunt. Once, when Aphrodite was to go away for a few days, she warned Adonis not to stray too far into the forest while hunting. At the same time, she told him to stay away from any beast that did not run away from him.
However, the heart of young Adonis was audacious and neglecting Aphrodite's warning he plunged deep into the forest. There he came upon a wild boar and, no matter how much he tried, he could not scare it away. The boar, angered, attacked Adonis and with one massive heave of its head pierced the young man with its tusk. It is said that the boar which killed Adonis was no ordinary beast but the god Ares, who was one of Aphrodite's many lovers. Jealous of her passion for Adonis, Ares, disguised himself in the form of a boar and attacked the young man.
Hearing the screams of his beloved Adonis, Aphrodite immediately headed for the forest, where she found him breathing his last. Kneeling by his side, she sprinkled nectar over the wound and to ease his pain she sang gently to him. A smile caressed Adonis' countenance, as he silently passed away into the Realm of the Dead. The nectar that Aphrodite sprinkled on Adonis' wound had turned the droplets of his blood into beautiful red anemones, while the rest of his blood flowed, becoming the river Adonis, which is today known as the river Nahr Ibrahim in coastal Lebanon.
Persephone greeted Adonis with arms wide open as he entered the underworld and her delight knew no bounds. At the same time, Aphrodite, knowing that her Adonis must be in the clutches of Persephone, rushed to the underworld to bring him back. Once again, Zeus had to intervene and stop the women from quarrelling over who would have rightful possession of Adonis.
With great patience he told them that henceforth, Adonis would spend half the year with Aphrodite and the other half with Persephone. This last aspect may symbolize the life of a man, who spends half his life with his mother and half his life with his wife.
Opera in English
In the 17th Century, a time when opera was getting going in Italy and France, Britain was undergoing a series of colossal upheavals that led to drama being effectively outlawed. The Puritans under Oliver Cromwell had closed all the theatres in 1642 and plays had been banned. A savvy impresario, William Davenant, faced with being unable to present his works, sidestepped the ban by setting his latest play, The Siege of Rhodes, to music (music being allowed whilst plays were not!). Thus was born, out of dismal circumstances, the first ever opera in English, performed (privately) in 1656. Nothing of the music remains today, and written by 5 different composers as an afterthought to what was intended to be a play, it’s a work more of historic interest than theatrical merit.
With the fall of Cromwell and the restoration of Charles II in 1660, opera in Britain was briefly allowed to develop as more than just a sneaky way to get plays performed. But, it wasn’t really a case of the flood gates opening, in fact it took some twenty years before a true English opera was created. However, after all his time exiled in France, King Charles had developed a taste for the music of the court of Louis XIV. In part because of this, opera did begin to be imported. Francesco Cavalli’s Erismena possibly the first foreign language opera to be translated into English in 1674.
If French opera was created by Jean-Baptiste Lully by borrowing liberally from Italian opera, then British opera was truly kicked off by Matthew Locke and John Blow who borrowed from Lully and the French. Locke was one of the composers of The Siege of Rhodes and his masque (a popular form of court entertainment involving acting, singing and dancing) Orpheus and Euridice of 1673 made a decisive push towards making music an integral part of the plot (something that wasn’t really true of the traditional masque).
Blow’s Venus and Adonis followed on from this, premiering around 1683 as a private performance for the King. Venus and Adonis is held as the earliest existing English language opera, a through-composed work though still in some ways a masque in form. This would be Blow’s only contribution to the stage. As with many other British composers of the period, Blow was heavily associated with the church (a hallmark of British music that has continued to this day) and ecclesiastical anthems make up the bulk of his output.
One of Blow’s students, Henry Purcell, would soon create the crowning achievement of the English Baroque operatic movement in Dido and Aeneas, 1689. Purcell then gave up on the fully-sung opera and wrote semi-operas for the rest of his career. The semi-opera, a decidedly British form, harkens back to Davenant’s quasi-musical creations being spoken plays with musical episodes tacked on. The best known today is Purcell’s The Fairy Queen, 1692, a hacked apart version of Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, but the earliest work that remains is Louis Grabu’s Albion and Albanius, 1685 (which can also stake its claim to being the earliest “full length” English language opera).
Dido's Lament from Dido and Aeneas sung by Sarah Connolly
After Purcell the popularity of opera and semi-opera dwindled in Britain and to be brutally honest that was pretty close to the end of opera in English. Thomas Arne had a moderately successful crack at reviving the form by imitating Italian styles on English texts in the mid 1700s but it didn’t sustain past his own career. These were mostly lightweight comedies but he had considerable success with Artaxerxes, 1762, which now stands as about the only English language opera seria.
Artaxerxes reimagined at the Royal Opera
Otherwise it was left to George Frederic Handel to dominate the British stages and his operatic works were almost entirely written in Italian. Handel turned later in his life towards the English choral tradition and turned out a huge number of English language oratorios, some of which have since been pinched back to the opera house such as Semele, 1743.
An interesting outlier in all this is The Beggar’s Opera, 1728, by John Gay and the various accompanying ballad operas. These racy works had none of the noble, heroic narratives of the mainstream Handellian opera of the time and were instead biting, satirical pieces featuring predominantly lower class characters. These had spoken dialogue and short, punchy, witty songs leading to swifter narratives and many more laughs. They used well known tunes with new lyrics and virtually none have made it to the 21st Century (The Beggar’s Opera being the major exception). The ballad opera also proved short lived in popularity, threatening Handel's popularity for a few years but nearly moribund by the 1750s.
The outlook for the next 150 years was particularly bleak and with the exception of a few passing fancies, Michael Balfe’s The Bohemian Girl, 1843, and William Wallace’s Maritana, 1845, which are basically Italian operas with English texts, there were few significant works (and if you’ve heard either of those live we’re very impressed. ). Plenty of operas were performed but the fashions were for Italian, French and later German works with the end result being that English works just weren’t written.
By the late 19th Century, W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan would make great hay parodying the continental operatic conventions in their wonderful Savoy Operas, a sort of Romantic ballad opera. However, with the exception of Sullivan’s brief foray into Grand Opera with Ivanhoe, 1891, anyone looking for a great 19th Century English language opera is going to be disappointed.
Eric Idle as The Lord High Executioner of Titipu in Gilbert and Sullivan's The Mikado. The English National Opera's production by Jonathan Miller is still performed today though this seminal 1987 cast were recorded for posterity.
Things began to change quite dramatically in the 20th Century. Britain started to produce operatic composers and what is more, America did too! Against a background of decline on the global opera scene, neither German nor Italian opera ever quite recovered from the end of the Romantic period, the English language resurgence was remarkable.
In Britain, Gustav Holst and Ralph Vaughan Williams were first out the gate producing a series of operas, including The Perfect Fool, 1923, by the former and Riders to the Sea, 1937, by the latter. The real game changer however was Benjamin Britten, whose early masterpiece Peter Grimes, 1945, fast entered the repertory and hasn’t left since.
Today Benjamin Britten is, by some margin, the most performed opera composer born after 1900: his output from the 1940s to the 1970s dominates contemporary opera. At a time when classical music had become what many might call “difficult” (scarcely fair but atonalism and serialism aren’t the byword in beauty), Britten produced operas whose accessibility has seldom been matched.
Perhaps we can say then, that the floodgates of opera in English had finally opened: Michael Tippett, Harrison Birtwistle and Peter Maxwell Davis amongst others producing dozens of successful works. If there is a German titan of 20th Century opera it is Hans Werner Henze, and even he wrote several English language works including Elegy for Young Lovers, 1961, the libretto by poet W. H. Auden. The interesting outlier again relates to Ballad Opera, this time going the other way. Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill producing Die Dreigroschenoper, 1928, (The Threepenny Opera) a German take on Gay's The Beggar's Opera.
The first New York Italian Opera House
The story of opera in the USA, unsurprisingly, starts later than in Europe. A major early driving force was Lorenzo Da Ponte, the librettist of several of Mozart’s masterpieces (Don Giovanni, Le Nozze di Figaro and Cosi fan tutte), who moved to New York in 1805. He helped, along with the vast numbers of European immigrants, to create a vogue for European opera and founded the very first American opera company in 1833 (though it was to prove short lived). Genuine American operas were few and far between, and it wasn’t until the emergence of the great Broadway musical that American opera really got going, Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess finding a ready home in opera houses the world over.
Another factor in the rise of American music was the influx of opera composers fleeing the Third Reich. Not all would continue to write opera, Wolfgang Korngold writing incredible film scores instead (his scores won two Oscars while his German language operas languished in obscurity), and Béla Bartók never gained the recognition in America required to produce new operas. However, Igor Stravinsky contributed The Rake’s Progress, 1951, a masterpiece of English language opera with a libretto by Auden and Chester Kallman.
Possibly the most prolific American opera composer was Gian Carlo Menotti who wrote nearly 20 operas. His most famous work, Amahl and the Night Visitors, 1951, was written for the first time for television rather than the stage (in a version still available today). The wave of English language opera would continue with the next generation of American operatic composers, many rooted in the minimalism movement. Philip Glass’s Einstein on the Beach crashed onto the scene in 1971 and John Adams Nixon in China in 1987.
Contemporary OperaGerald Finley singing "Batter my Heart" from Doctor Atomic, John Adam's 2005 opera in the Peter Sellars De Nederlandse Opera production
Adonis and Aphrodite
Aphrodite protected him from Theias and appointed Persephone to raise him. When he reached a mature age, Aphrodite requested him to be returned to her to which Persephone refused. The two goddesses had to have their dispute judged and solved by Zeus. Zeus declared that he would spend a third of a year with each goddess and one third with whoever he wanted. He chose to spend two thirds with Aphrodite.
There are two different versions that describe the death of Adonis.
- He died of an attack by a wild boar that was sent by Artemis, who was jealous of the exceptional hunting skills that the god of beauty had acquired.
- Ares, the lover of Aphrodite, sent the boar over his jealousy of Aphrodite and Adonis&rsquo relationship.
Aphrodite mourned his death and poured nectar over his blood that gave birth to the flower anemone.
Meet 'Adonis,' Europe’s Oldest Known Living Tree
A Bosnian pine living in the highlands of Greece has been shown to be more than 1,075 years, making it the oldest known living tree in Europe.
The ancient tree's age was determined this summer by researchers from the University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, Stockholm University in Sweden and the University of Mainz in Germany. The tree's advanced age was determined by counting its annual rings.
Because of its venerable age and where it was found, the scientists dubbed the ancient pine "Adonis," after the Greek god of beauty and desire.
The tree lives in a barren alpine landscape at the upper limit of tree line, along with about a dozen other aging members of its species, Pinus heldreichii.
UA researchers Valerie Trouet, Matthew Meko and Soumaya Belmecheri were on expeditions in 2015 and 2016 to find and sample old trees to learn about the region's environmental history. Scientists can reconstruct past climate by looking at width and density of the annual growth rings of trees.
Adonis and the other Bosnian pines at the site just look old, said Trouet, a UA associate professor of dendrochronology. Adonis itself sports the twisted, spiral trunk and the thinning of leaves on top that characterize aged trees.
"To find an old tree like that in a country that's been densely populated for so long — it’s amazing," Trouet said.
In 2013, Swedish dendrochronologist Paul Krusic took a 24-inch (60 cm) core from Adonis to count its rings, but his coring tool was too short to reach the center of the tree. Even so, counting the rings from that core revealed the tree was more than 900 years old.
In 2016, the team came back to take more samples from the old trees, including Adonis. This time the group was armed with a coring instrument one meter long, said Meko, a UA doctoral student in geosciences.
Paul Krusic, who led the 2016 expedition, said, "It is quite remarkable that this large, complex and impressive organism has survived so long in such an inhospitable environment, in a land that has been civilized for over 3,000 years."
Adonis and its fellows are all individual trees with their own individual root system — each one is a unique individual, Trouet said. There are some plants and trees that grow as clonal organisms where the root systems may be older than Adonis, but the above-ground trunks are young.
Other trees in Europe are known to be at least 700 years old, Trouet said. Because Europe has been densely populated for so long, most trees that sprouted more than 500 years ago have been long since cut down.
Some of the oldest known living trees are the bristlecone pines of the Western U.S. that live in desolate, windswept, arid, alpine habitats near treeline — habitats similar to where Adonis lives. Bristlecone pines are known to live more than 4,000 years.
The researchers plan to learn about the past climate of Greece and the Balkans because those regions are strongly influenced by the jet stream, Trouet said. The team anticipates the climate records stored in old Balkan and Greek trees will provide new insights into Europe's environmental history.
The Creed Family Timeline
Hardcore fans will understand the difficulties in making the timeline for “Creed” realistic when taken in context with the entire Rocky series. Let’s lay out the facts …
TIME TO GO TO SCHOOL, SON
It is easily forgotten that Apollo Creed has two children, a boy and a girl, both of whom are merely glimpsed in a brief scene with their mother, Mary Anne Creed, played by actress Sylvia Meals in Rocky II. The kids, who appear to be around 7 or 8 years old, run through the Creed house ahead of their mother, the little girl clutching her doll, the boy looking suave in a red turtleneck. Neither child was credited in the movie.
Rocky II, although filmed in 1978, is meant to take place during 1976 following Rocky and Apollo’s very first match which would mean that Apollo’s young son must have been born around 1969, making him about 46 years old today. That leaves an 18 year gap between Apollo’s known son and the character of Adonis. Where did the time go?
Rocky IV, filmed towards the end of 1984, opens with Rocky returning home after his one-on-one sparring session with Apollo, which took place at the end of Rocky III. In the chronology of the series, that sparring session would have taken place roughly at the end of 1981. We’re basing this on the fact that Mickey Goldmill’s headstone reads that he died on August 15, 1981. The story then followed that Rocky became discouraged, went to Los Angeles with Apollo to get back the eye of the tiger, and then battled Clubber Lang some weeks later in 1981.
IF HE DIES, HE DIES
The release also hints that Adonis “never knew his famous father”, meaning that Apollo was dead before Adonis was born. This would mean that Mary Anne Creed would had to have been (perhaps unknowingly) pregnant with Adonis during Apollo’s fatal match with Ivan Drago, or that another woman was involved. According to this jumbled timeline, this means that Apollo Creed must have died at some point in 1982, leaving his mystery son to be born in 1982-83.
This reasoning makes the idea of the “Creed” film a bit more plausible since the actor portraying Adonis was born in 1987. It may also explain the name Adonis Johnson it’s possible that Mary Anne Creed remarried and her child took the new husband’s name. But what about the little boy from Rocky II? Perhaps only the most dedicated Rocky fans even realize that he existed, and to the general moviegoing public, whether or not he is referenced doesn’t matter in the least. Maybe we Rocky purists can consider the forgotten Rocky II son to be Adonis’ unmentioned older brother.
Milo Ventimiglia’s New Physique
Finally, the synopsis doesn’t mention Rocky Junior, last portrayed in Rocky Balboa by actor Milo Ventimiglia, which is just as well since Stallone has described “Creed” as “Creed 1, not Rocky 7.” Still, it’s made the public wonder – why not a film about Rocky’s son becoming a boxer? In the years since Balboa, Ventimiglia has certainly beefed up to the point of being a believable bruiser.
WHAT DO YOU THINK? LEAVE A COMMENT
What’s your take on the Adonis character and the story’s timeline? Weigh in below!
History of Israel | Timeline
In this article, we will divide the list of significant events in Israel in two ways:
- We will look into the origins of the people of Israel from a Biblical standpoint.
- We will discuss the post-Biblical events that shaped the history and creation of Israel.
– Biblical History of Israel
We can trace the Biblical history of Israel back to Abraham the Patriarch, as explained in the Book of Genesis, and from where Israel originated [the origination of Israel story]. In Genesis Chapter 12, Abram, 75, a man from the nomadic tribe of Ur, was called upon by the Jewish God to leave his land, family, and belongings and go to Canaan, the promised land.
In Chapter 17, Yahweh said that from now on, Abram would be called Abraham, which means “father of multitudes.” This pronouncement confused Abraham as he is very old. He told his wife Sarah about what Yahweh told him, and she laughed at God’s promise. Sarah was too old to bear and give birth to a child.
Even before Yahweh’s promised heir, Abraham bedded his Egyptian slave-girl Hagar who gave birth to Ishmael. [Scholars say Ishmael is the root from which the word Islam was based.]
In Genesis Chapter 21, Sarah became pregnant and gave birth to a son whom Abraham named Isaac.
Many years have passed, and Isaac has grown into a man. He married Rebekah and gave birth to twin brothers Esau and Jacob. As it is common in old Jewish traditions, conflicts among kins are present. Jacob cheated Esau for his birthright, and the latter wanted to kill him. His father also wanted to marry him off to a Canaanite woman, and Jacob was against it. So, Jacob ran away from home and went to his uncle Laban. It is here where Jacob married two women who later on gave birth to 12 children.
After serving Laban for some years, he left and headed to Palestine. On his way, he encountered an angel of God. Jacob wrestled with the holy being, hoping to get the Holy High’s blessing. They wrestled until sundown, and when the angel realized Jacob would not give up, he broke one of Jacob’s ribs, blessed him, and called him “Israel,” which translates to “the one who wrestled with God.”
The name Israel stuck with Jacob and his 12 sons, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Benjamin, and Joseph, are referred to as the 12 tribes of Israel in the Old Testament. These 12 tribes later served as the foundation of the Kingdom of Israel.
One famous story among the 12 brothers is Joseph’s narrative, the 11th son of Jacob, being sold to Egypt. Joseph is the favorite of Jacob, and his brothers became jealous. Jacob has a gift of dream interpretation, and it came in handy during his stay in Egypt.
He interpreted the Pharaoh’s dream giving insight into what will happen to Egypt in the future. It was because of his dream interpretation that allowed the Pharaoh and the rest of Egypt to plan and stave off calamities. The Pharaoh rewarded Joseph. Such reward trickled down to Jacob’s other children when they suffered from famine and had to go to Egypt to beg for food and supplies.
Joseph welcomed his brothers openly and forgave them. It is at this point in which the tribes of Israel found a new home in Egypt.
However, when Joseph and Jacob died, their sons and lineage suffered from the succeeding Egyptian leadership’s hands. They were subjected to slave labor building Egyptian architecture for hundreds of years.
It was during this period that Israel’s history became even more interesting. Moses, whose name means “saved by the waters,” was the son of Amran and Jochebed, two Jewish slaves of the Egyptian empire. They saved Moses from the wrath of the Pharaoh, who ordered the killing of firstborn Jewish children. There was a prophecy when the eldest Jewish son would lead a slave revolt and overthrow the Egyptian leadership.
Moses was set adrift in the River Nile, and Bithya, the Pharaoh’s daughter, saved the child. She kept Moses as her own. Moses grew up as one of the princes of Egypt. He became a close and dear friend of Ramses II, the heir to the Egyptian throne.
Later, Moses discovered the truth about his background and left Egypt to be with his people. During this period, the God of Abraham talked to him in one of his treks to Mount Sinai. Yahweh told Moses that he would be instrumental in setting the Jewish people free from Egyptian slavery.
Below is a brief timeline of the Biblical history of ancient Israel:
- 1300 B.C. – Moses led Israel’s children out of Egypt, crossed the Red Sea, and through the desert for 40 years before reaching the promised land.
- 1250 B.C. – Under Joshua’s leadership, they conquered and took over Canaan – the promised land.
- 1000 B.C. to 970 B.C. – The period of kings, most especially the first King of Israel, Saul, and King David’s history.
- 965 B.C. to 931 B.C. – This period took place after the death of King Solomon when Israel became a nation divided into two – Judah to the south and the Kingdom of Israel in the north
- 722 B.C. – Assyria attacked and conquered Israel, which later led to the exile of the ten tribes.
- 586 B.C. – King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon went after Judah. He conquered Judah and took many Israelites as slaves. They also destroyed the First Temple that Solomon built.
- 538 B.C. to 333 B.C. – The Persians, in turn, conquered Babylon and set the people of Israel free to return to their land. The surviving children of Israel got back home. They proceeded to build the Second Temple in the city of Jerusalem.
- 333 B.C. – Israel was recaptured again, this time by Alexander the Great of Greece. He captured them with the help of Egypt and Persia.
- 167 B.C. – The Maccabean revolt happened, setting the Israelites free from Alexander the Great’s bondage.
- 63 B.C. to 37 B.C. – The period between when Pompey of Rome conquered Israel and when Herod became the first King of Israel in the city of Rome.
- 20 A.D. to 30 A.D. – The start of Jesus’ story and his ministry, including his passion, death on the cross, resurrection, and ascension.
– Post-Biblical History of Israel
- 60 A.D. to 73 A.D. – The Romans destroyed the second temple. It was in this period the Israelites rebelled against the Roman Empire but were defeated at Masada.
- 132 A.D. – The Israelites revolted against Rome the second time.
- 200 A.D. to 390 A.D. – The codification of the oral laws and traditions of the Israelites commenced and completed.
- 615 A.D. – Jerusalem, the city of the Israelites, was invaded and captured by the Persians.
- 629 A.D. to 1517 – This was the period when Jerusalem became the target of so many people. The city and its residents captured by the Byzantine Empire, the Muslim Force, Seljuk Turks, the Crusaders, Saladin of Egypt, and the Ottoman Empire.
– Israel History in Modern Days
- 1914 to 1918 – World War 1 began at this period while the Israelites were still under the Ottoman Empire’s rule. And by the end of World War 1 in 1918, Britain took over from the Ottoman Empire and began to rule what was now known as the Palestine Mandate (this consists of Israel, Jordan, and Palestine).
- 1922 –The Balfour Declaration’s approval, a statement drafted by the British Foreign Secretary, Arthur James Balfour, called for establishing a national home for Israelites in Palestine. The declaration aimed to secure the allegiance and support of the Jewish people during World War I. However, the idea of having the Jews own their homeland didn’t go down well with the Arabs. Palestinians opposed this move because they believe that once the Jews are allowed to make Palestine their home, they will subdue the Palestinian-Arabs.
- 1939 to 1945 – The start and end of World War II. It was during this period hundreds of thousands of Jews suffered and died in Nazi Germany concentration camps.
- 1947 – Palestine was partitioned into different Arab and Israeli states was recommended by the U.N., such that the United Nations would have control over Jerusalem.
- 1948 – Israel became the newest member of the United Nations after gaining independence from British rule. David Ben-Gurion became the first Prime Minister of the Independent Country of Israel.
– Post-Independence in Israel History
- 1948 to 1949 – Shortly after Israel’s independence, a joint army of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Arab, and Egypt attacked Israel. Israel won the war, leaving over 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fleeing from Arab states. Israel went ahead to hold her first Israeli Assembly in 1949.
- 1954 – Moshe Sharett becomes the Prime Minister of Israel.
- 1956 to 1957 – A coalition of France, Israel, and Britain invaded Egypt in what was known as the Suez Crisis. This invasion was to put an end to the Palestinians’ attack on Israel via Gaza and Sinai. Another reason for the invasion was the Suez Canal re-opening so that Israelites would enjoy seamless shipping.
- 1963 – Levi Eshkol became the Prime Minister of Israel.
- 1967 – A six-day war happened between Israel and some Arab nations: Iraq, Syria, Egypt, and Jordan. Israel also won this war, and she won control over Sinai, Gaza, West Bank, and Golan Heights.
- 1969 – This was the year that Israel had its first female Prime Minister, in the person of Golda Meir.
- 1972 – The year of the infamous “Black September” in which Palestinian terrorists infiltrated the Munich Olympics in Germany and murdered nine Israeli athletes.
- 1973 – On the Holy day of Yom Kippur in October of that year, Syria and Egypt came together to invade Israel. Although Israel won the war, and she suffered a significant loss too.
- 1979 – This was when Egypt and Israel signed a treaty in the United States of America, particularly at Camp David.
- 1980 to 1991 – Between the duration of these years, the Shekel replaced the Israeli Lira as its official currency. Also, during this period, the Gulf war happened. During the war, 42 Scud missiles were fired at Israel by Iraq for no good reason. Fortunately for Iraq, Israel didn’t respond to the shooting. Hence she wasn’t dragged into the war.
- 2009 – Israel elected another Prime Minister, whose name was Benjamin Netanyahu. In that same year, it was discovered that Israel has massive deposits of offshore natural gas.
- 2010 – The relationship between Turkey and Israel threatens to break finally as 9 Turkish activists (Pro-Palestinian) were killed while Israelis tried to remove the Gaza blockade.
- 2010 – The Palestinian Authority and Israel resume direct peace talks, encourage an excellent social, and most importantly, a good economic relationship between both nations. The talks didn’t end well at that time.
- 2013 – This year saw the Prime Minister of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu, bringing on secular and centrist parties into government in place of religious Israel groups. In that same year, Palestinian Authority and Israel continued their peace talks for a few months. They finally agreed to pump water from the Red Sea into the Dead Sea in December of that year. This decision was taken to make sure that the Dead Sea doesn’t run out of water.
- 2015 – An Israeli couple was murdered in a car in West Bank by alleged Palestinian Arabs. It seems that the Dead Sea/Red Sea was the only agreement that the Palestinian Arabs want to have with the Israelis. The agreement didn’t cover meaningless killings and car rammings. Israel experienced a lot of car-rammings and killings in that year.
- 2016 – Concerning Turkey and Israel’s clash in 2010, both nations reached a consensus and normalized their relationship.
- 2017 – After securing the West Bank for over 20 years, the Israeli Parliament passes the law that legalized the building of twelve Jewish settlements on the West Bank. In the same year, work started on the West Bank.
- 2017 – President Donald Trump announced Jerusalem as Israel’s capital city. He instructed that the American Embassy be relocated from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. But this announcement and recognition of Jerusalem didn’t bode well with the Arab world.
- 2018 – The American Embassy was moved from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem this year. This led to fights and protests in which over 58 Palestinians were killed, and over 2,700 were injured. In the same year, the Israeli Parliament passed a law that characterized the country majorly as a Jewish state. It made the Hebrew Language the Official Israel language.
- 2019 – The United States of America legalized the Israeli settlements on West Bank. In the same year, President Donald Trump also recognized Israel’s rule over Golan Heights Golan Heights was one of Israel’s lands forcefully collected from Syria during the 6-day war in the year 1967. But it happened that contrary to what President Trump said, the international community didn’t recognize Israel’s rule over Golan Heights. In the same year, President Benjamin Netanyahu was accused and formally charged with fraud, bribery, and breach of trust. He was required to give up the ministerial portfolios under his management. He was left alone with his position as the Prime Minister of Israel.
- 2020 – Israel established a diplomatic relationship with the United Arab Emirates. This makes the UAE the first nation amongst the Gulf states to ever agree with Israel. Following suit, Bahrain also established an agreement with Israel to normalize their relationship. The reason for this was to boost stability, prosperity, and security between both nations and their regions.
Castellammarese War and the National Crime Syndicate
During the 1920s, Adonis became an enforcer for Frankie Yale, the boss of some rackets in Brooklyn. While working for Yale, Adonis briefly met future Chicago Outfit boss Al Capone, who was also working for Yale. Meanwhile, Luciano became an enforcer for Giuseppe Masseria, who ran an organization loosely based on clans from Naples and Southern Italy. After the 1928 assassination of Yale, Masseria took over Yale's criminal organization.
Masseria soon became embroiled in the vicious Castellammarese War with his arch rival, Salvatore Maranzano. Maranzano represented the Sicilian clans, most of which came from Castellammare del Golfo in Sicily. As the war progressed, both bosses started recruiting more soldiers. By 1930, Adonis had joined the Masseria faction. As the war turned against Masseria, Luciano secretly contacted Maranzano about switching sides. When Masseria heard about Luciano's betrayal, he approached Adonis about killing Luciano. However, Adonis instead warned Luciano about the murder plot.
On April 15, 1931, Adonis allegedly participated in Masseria's murder. Charles Luciano had lured Masseria to a meeting at a Coney Island, Brooklyn restaurant. During their meal, Luciano excused himself to go to the restroom. As soon as Luciano was gone, Adonis, Vito Genovese, Albert Anastasia, and Bugsy Siegel rushed into the dining room and shot Masseria to death. No one was ever indicted in the Masseria murder.
With the death of Masseria, the war ended and Maranzano was the victor. To avoid any future wars, Maranzano reorganized all the Italian-American gangs into families and anointed himself as the "boss of all bosses". Luciano and his loyalists quickly became dissatisfied with Maranzano's power grab. When Luciano discovered that the suspicious Maranzano had ordered his murder, Luciano struck first. On September 10, 1931, several gunmen attacked and killed Maranzano in his Manhattan office.
With Maranzano's death, Luciano became the pre-eminent organized crime boss in New York City. However, unlike Maranzano, Luciano did not want to become the "boss of all bosses". Instead, he established a National Crime Syndicate that united all the Italian-American gangs across the country and allowed for shared decision-making. For his part in murdering Masseria, Adonis received a seat on the Syndicate "board of directors".
He was a timid young boy who trained with his father in swordplay, who was excessively brutal and harsh when they sparred. Ώ]
Golden Age Arc [ edit | edit source ]
When he was young, Adonis lost his mother, and he has been raised by his father Julius and caretaker Hassan ever since. When Guts infiltrates General Julius' manor to assassinate Julius at Griffith's behest, he witnesses Adonis training with his father. Adonis' father has great expectations of him he exclaims that Adonis is to succeed him as leader of what he believes to be the mightiest force in Midland, the White Dragon Knights. Furthermore, Julius states that Adonis may marry his cousin, Princess Charlotte, and rule all Midland. Hiding behind a chimney, Guts is reminded of his relationship with Gambino while watching Julius train his son. Once the session is done, Hassan tries to comfort the young noble, asking him to not resent Julius' actions. He later pleads with Julius to be less intense in his sessions with Adonis, reminding the general that the boy is only thirteen years old and misses his late mother. Ώ]
After his assassination of Julius, Guts accidentally stabs the young boy through the chest when he approaches the door to the scene. Ώ] Adonis grasps Guts' hand before he dies, much to the swordsman's horror. According to the caretaker Hassan, Adonis never once saw his father smile. ΐ]